Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: a systematic literature review of scientific evidence from across the world in 2007-2017.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
diabetes mellitus 4 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
metformin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
obesity 31 endocrinologydiseases
type 2 diabetes mellitus 4 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
metformin 42464 this risk. For example, sulfonylureas which are the second most commonly used antidiabetic drug after metformin , have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality [[71]].
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 2571 Federation (IDF) estimates that worldwide, 415 million people have diabetes, 91% of whom have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [[1]]. People with diabetes comprise 8.8% of the world’s population, and IDF predicts that
diabetes mellitus 10815 cardiovascular death, OR non-fatal myocardial infarction, OR non-fatal stroke, OR obesity AND type 2 diabetes mellitus . Other keywords were cerebrovascular disease, cerebral arterial disease, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral
diabetes mellitus 19581 income level.Table 2Geographic distribution of prevalence studies of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus RegionPopulationa (millions)StudiesNStroke (%)MIAnginaHeart failureAtherosclerosisCADCVD (%)Africa44111325.0NRNRNRNR23.6%28.6Europe66029b4,327,5037.210.0%14.6%19.0%33.0%15.4%30.0Middle
diabetes mellitus 30448 cardiovascular disease, MI myocardial infarction, NR not reported, SCD sudden cardiac death, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus aWeighted average of rates taken only for patients with T2DM and where complete outcomes were reported;
metabolic syndrome 9146 grafting (CABG)/coronary revascularization. Also excluded were intermediate states such as hypertension or metabolic syndrome or studies of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT).Outcome[s]The outcome of interest was the prevalence
obesity 10796 cardiovascular disease, OR cardiovascular death, OR non-fatal myocardial infarction, OR non-fatal stroke, OR obesity AND type 2 diabetes mellitus. Other keywords were cerebrovascular disease, cerebral arterial disease,
obesity 11916 patients screened, percentages of males and females, average age, duration of T2DM, the proportion with obesity (or average body mass index (BMI) ± SD). Outcome data consisted of the numbers and percentages
obesity 23075 (median = 64.3 years; weighted average = 66.3 ± 6.9 years). The weighted average proportion of persons with obesity was 46.3 ± 15.0%, with a simple average of 47.0 ± 14.7% (median = 45.4%), defined as a
obesity 30760 among obese vs. non-obese people with T2DMAbout half of the patients included in this analysis had obesity . Three-quarters of the included studies reported on patients’ BMI or the percent of patients with
obesity 30868 Three-quarters of the included studies reported on patients’ BMI or the percent of patients with obesity . While the definitions and BMI cut-off points of obesity varied across studies, the most commonly used
obesity 30925 patients’ BMI or the percent of patients with obesity. While the definitions and BMI cut-off points of obesity varied across studies, the most commonly used definition of obesity was a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, which
obesity 30993 definitions and BMI cut-off points of obesity varied across studies, the most commonly used definition of obesity was a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, which was employed by 16 studies (43% of those providing a definition).Five
obesity 31159 studies (43% of those providing a definition).Five papers reported prevalence rates of CVD according to obesity status, and all of them found a positive relationship between obesity and increased prevalence rates
obesity 31229 prevalence rates of CVD according to obesity status, and all of them found a positive relationship between obesity and increased prevalence rates of CVD [[26], [37]–[40]]. Using logistic regression to control for
obesity 31413 regression to control for multiple factors, Bhatti et al. [[26]] found a positive correlation between obesity and CAD (P = 0.021). Tamba et al. [[37]] reported positive correlations between obesity and both
obesity 31505 between obesity and CAD (P = 0.021). Tamba et al. [[37]] reported positive correlations between obesity and both CAD (r = 0.3, P < 0.001) and stroke (r = 0.5, P < 0.001). Boonman-de Winter
obesity 31905 23.4% (95% CI 19.4–27.5%) in those with a BMI < 30 kg/m2, which represents a 65% increase due to obesity .Two studies explored the relationship between increasing BMI and risk of CVD [[39], [40]]. According
obesity 32288 the lowest and highest categories [< 25 (normal), 25–30 kg/m2 (overweight), 30–35 kg/m2 (mild obesity ), 35–40 kg/m2 (moderate obesity) and > 40 kg/m2 (severe obesity)]. The difference was that prevalence
obesity 32323 [< 25 (normal), 25–30 kg/m2 (overweight), 30–35 kg/m2 (mild obesity), 35–40 kg/m2 (moderate obesity ) and > 40 kg/m2 (severe obesity)]. The difference was that prevalence rates in males were about double
obesity 32358 (overweight), 30–35 kg/m2 (mild obesity), 35–40 kg/m2 (moderate obesity) and > 40 kg/m2 (severe obesity )]. The difference was that prevalence rates in males were about double those for females in every BMI
obesity 32793 females, prevalence rates of stroke/TIA increased in those who were overweight and had mild or moderate obesity but decreased for those with severe obesity. Finally, Glogner et al. [[40]] had quite different results.
obesity 32837 increased in those who were overweight and had mild or moderate obesity but decreased for those with severe obesity . Finally, Glogner et al. [[40]] had quite different results. They reported a steady increase in prevalence
obesity 33157 25–30), a 36% increase. However, MI prevalence rates declined thereafter with each increasing category of obesity . The highest category (BMI ≥ 40) had a prevalence rate of 5.01%, which was 27% lower than those
obesity 34364 of the review. Along with diabetes, cardiovascular disease is associated with several risk factors, obesity , and age. We, therefore, evaluated the association between age and obesity among patients with CVD and
obesity 34439 with several risk factors, obesity, and age. We, therefore, evaluated the association between age and obesity among patients with CVD and T2DM in the selected articles.Age as a risk factor for CVDAge is a well-known
obesity 36114 atherosclerosis [[51]], and cardiac death [[55], [56]]. Furthermore, it has been shown that overweight and obesity are highly prevalent in T2DM patients with high CV risk and that BMI and waist circumference are related
obesity 36628 classifying adults with a BMI 30 kg/m2 as obese [[58]]. However, BMI as a measure to stratify patients with obesity has limitations and does not account for the wide variation in body fat distribution nor the quality
obesity 37448 normal BMI in Asian populations [[61]].Seven of the included studies evaluated the relationship between obesity and/or BMI and CVD risk. Five of the studies included in this review identified a positive relationship
obesity 37568 and CVD risk. Five of the studies included in this review identified a positive relationship between obesity and increased prevalence rates of CVD [[26], [37]–[40]]. One of these studies [[26]] used lower BMI
obesity 37904 evaluated abdominal adiposity with waist circumference measurements to determine the prevalence of obesity . Overall, the studies found a positive relationship between increasing BMI and CVD; except in one study
obesity 38048 positive relationship between increasing BMI and CVD; except in one study [[39]], where women with severe obesity had a reduced prevalence of stroke. While the authors do not explain the reduced prevalence of stroke/TIA,
obesity 38529 and it has been shown that adiposity is associated with increased levels of estrogen [[64]].Although obesity is identified as a risk factor for CVD, it is associated with a paradox in that mortality is lower in
obesity 38765 overweight or obese than in those whose BMI is normal or underweight [[65]]. Lee et al. [[66]] reported that obesity provided a survival benefit to patients with heart failure who did not have comorbid diabetes, but not
obesity 39175 heart failure. They reported that BMI was inversely correlated with the risk of mortality, with severe obesity associated with less mortality risk.It is clear that the relationship between obesity and the risk of
obesity 39261 mortality, with severe obesity associated with less mortality risk.It is clear that the relationship between obesity and the risk of CVD and CVD-related deaths requires further exploration to identify these mechanisms
obesity 51744 is a paucity of research studies investigating both the prevalence of CVD and risk factors such as obesity among people with T2DM. Given the large burden that CVD exerts on healthcare systems, patients and families
type 2 diabetes mellitus 2564 Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimates that worldwide, 415 million people have diabetes, 91% of whom have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [[1]]. People with diabetes comprise 8.8% of the world’s population, and IDF predicts that
type 2 diabetes mellitus 10808 disease, OR cardiovascular death, OR non-fatal myocardial infarction, OR non-fatal stroke, OR obesity AND type 2 diabetes mellitus . Other keywords were cerebrovascular disease, cerebral arterial disease, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral
type 2 diabetes mellitus 19574 lowest income level.Table 2Geographic distribution of prevalence studies of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus RegionPopulationa (millions)StudiesNStroke (%)MIAnginaHeart failureAtherosclerosisCADCVD (%)Africa44111325.0NRNRNRNR23.6%28.6Europe66029b4,327,5037.210.0%14.6%19.0%33.0%15.4%30.0Middle
type 2 diabetes mellitus 30441 CVD cardiovascular disease, MI myocardial infarction, NR not reported, SCD sudden cardiac death, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus aWeighted average of rates taken only for patients with T2DM and where complete outcomes were reported;

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