Influence of diabetes mellitus on anterior segment of the eye

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
diabetic autonomic neuropathy 4 endocrinologydiseases
diabetic foot 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetic neuropathy 6 endocrinologydiseases
diabetic retinopathy 8 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 10 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 3 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 3 endocrinologydiseases

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Insulin 21345 P level was also shown to be related to the duration of DM and severity of diabetic retinopathy.[77] Insulin is found in the tear film, and insulin receptors are identified on the ocular surface.[80] Insulin is
Insulin 21444 retinopathy.[77]Insulin is found in the tear film, and insulin receptors are identified on the ocular surface.[80] Insulin is thought to provide neurotrophic support to the ocular surface and promote the metabolism and growth
Insulin 25502 accelerate the epithelial healing process via the neurokinin-1 receptor signaling pathway.[37],[93] Insulin -like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was also shown to promote regeneration of corneal nerves and ocular surface
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 51 Title: Clinical Interventions in AgingInfluence of diabetes mellitus on anterior segment of the eyeSang Beom HanHee Kyung YangJoon Young Hyon1Department of Ophthalmology,
diabetes mellitus 30227 suggesting corneal nerve assessment can be a reliable biomarker for peripheral and autonomic nerve damage in diabetes mellitus (DM)StudyDesignFindingsMessmer et al[30] (2010)Human cross-sectional studyCorneal confocal microscopy
diabetes mellitus 31569 4-year follow-up period.Table 2Effects of the medications for anterior segment disorders associated with diabetes mellitus MedicationsEffectsArtificial tearsMaintenance of healthy ocular surface and clear visual axisTopical
diabetic autonomic neuropathy 9221 composite autonomic symptom scale and showed a high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy , indicating that CCM can be a rapid, noninvasive, and reliable diagnostic test for subclinical diabetic
diabetic autonomic neuropathy 9346 neuropathy, indicating that CCM can be a rapid, noninvasive, and reliable diagnostic test for subclinical diabetic autonomic neuropathy .[35] Maddaloni et al[36] also suggested that CCM could be a noninvasive tool for the evaluation of cardiac
diabetic autonomic neuropathy 19455 stability in DM patients. Hyperglycemia can lead to microvascular damage to the lacrimal gland, and diabetic autonomic neuropathy is associated with impairment of lacrimal innervation, which both contribute to diminished tear production.[8]
diabetic autonomic neuropathy 31052 the composite autonomic symptom scale and had high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy .Maddaloni et al[36] (2015)Human case-control studyCorneal nerve density was significantly lower in patients
diabetic foot 12763 detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and prevention of serious neuropathic complications including diabetic foot (Table 1).[2] As retinal examination can be a window to systemic vascular changes in DM, visualization
diabetic neuropathy 1456 indicating the value of corneal nerve assessment as a sensitive, noninvasive, and repeatable biomarker for diabetic neuropathy will also be introduced. In addition, treatment modalities of anterior segment disorders associated
diabetic neuropathy 4725 DM.[14]PathogenesisChronic hyperglycemia is the core causative mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy as well as other systemic complications.[15] It induces pathological pathways, such as generation of
diabetic neuropathy 11207 retinopathy and aggravated with the progression of retinopathy.Corneal nerve changes as a window to diabetic neuropathy Although diabetic peripheral neuropathy involves both large and small nerve fibers, small nerve fibers
diabetic neuropathy 13062 autonomic nerve changes associated with DM.Corneal nerve changes with diabetic controlStudies showed that diabetic neuropathy can be improved after interventions for diabetic control,[45] although it may not be completely reversed.[46]
diabetic neuropathy 13417 after 1 year of strict glycemic control and lifestyle modification. Improvement in risk factors for diabetic neuropathy , such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, was associated with regeneration of corneal
diabetic neuropathy 29120 corneal neuropathy correlates with diabetic peripheral and autonomic neuropathy of other organs. Subtle diabetic neuropathy in the cornea often precedes reti-nopathy and neuropathy of other parts of the body. Therefore, examination
diabetic retinopathy 721 complications of DM are currently one of the major causes of blindness in developed countries, among which diabetic retinopathy is relatively well studied and understood. However, although ocular surface complications of DM are
diabetic retinopathy 10335 neuropathy.[38]Changes in corneal cells and nerve fibers were also shown to predict the development of diabetic retinopathy .[39]–[41] Alterations of the corneal subbasal nerve plexus have shown to progress in parallel with
diabetic retinopathy 10457 retinopathy.[39]–[41] Alterations of the corneal subbasal nerve plexus have shown to progress in parallel with diabetic retinopathy and peripheral neuropathy.[39] In patients with type 1 DM, CCM demonstrated corneal cellular changes
diabetic retinopathy 10898 and greater nerve fiber width in patients without retinopathy, which worsens with the progression of diabetic retinopathy .[40] Bitirgen et al[41] revealed that changes in corneal nerve parameters including reduction of nerve
diabetic retinopathy 11098 including reduction of nerve fiber density, length, and branch density were observed in patients without diabetic retinopathy and aggravated with the progression of retinopathy.Corneal nerve changes as a window to diabetic neuropathyAlthough
diabetic retinopathy 18097 risk of postoperative complications of the retina including cystoid macular edema and exacerbation of diabetic retinopathy , DM is also associated with an increased risk of corneal complications, such as persistent corneal edema,
diabetic retinopathy 20132 severity of dry eye signs has close correlation with the degree of peripheral neuropathy and severity of diabetic retinopathy .[10],[71],[74] However, with prolonged disease duration, patients are often asymptomatic even in the
diabetic retinopathy 21320 level.[79] The tear substance P level was also shown to be related to the duration of DM and severity of diabetic retinopathy .[77]Insulin is found in the tear film, and insulin receptors are identified on the ocular surface.[80]
hyperglycemia 3145 complications such as neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disorders, in which hyperglycemia plays a major role.[3] Ophthalmologic complications have emerged as the leading cause of blindness in
hyperglycemia 4648 reported to have diabetic peripheral neuropathy after a 25-year follow-up of DM.[14]PathogenesisChronic hyperglycemia is the core causative mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy as well as other
hyperglycemia 5012 products, sorbitol– aldose reductase pathway, and protein kinase C activation.[16],[17]First, chronic hyperglycemia leads to excessive influx of glucose into the mitochondria, which promotes the production of ROS due
hyperglycemia 6602 antiproliferative local cell signaling pathways.[19]Third, elevated intracellular glucose level caused by chronic hyperglycemia leads to decreased Na+/K+ ATPase activity on cell membrane, which reduces nerve conduction velocity
hyperglycemia 6808 velocity and inhibits nerve regeneration.[23],[24] Saturation of normal glycolytic pathway caused by hyperglycemia in nerve cells results in shunting of the surplus glucose into the sorbitol–aldose reductase pathway,
hyperglycemia 13446 glycemic control and lifestyle modification. Improvement in risk factors for diabetic neuropathy, such as hyperglycemia , dyslipidemia, and hypertension, was associated with regeneration of corneal nerve fibers, which was
hyperglycemia 14945 of cell to cell junctions in diabetic cornea.[53] Other animal studies showed detrimental effects of hyperglycemia on the corneal epithelium basement membrane complex and demonstrated findings suggesting compromise
hyperglycemia 22416 manner, while excess glucose resulted in progressive cell loss, suggesting that insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia may be toxic for the meibomian gland epithelial cells and increase the risk of meibomian gland disorders.[81]Contact
hyperglycemia 25384 and epithelial healing.[91]Substance P can attenuate apoptosis of corneal epithelial cells induced by hyperglycemia and accelerate the epithelial healing process via the neurokinin-1 receptor signaling pathway.[37],[93]
hyperglycemia 26304 in corneal neuropathy.[97] Park et al[98] reported that topical NGF can alleviate inflammation and hyperglycemia -induced apoptosis of epithelial cells in diabetic corneas. Kim et al[99] revealed that oral nicergoline

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