A Review of the Impacts of Different Approaches for Diabetes Prevention and a Framework for Making Investment Decisions.

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
metabolic syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
metformin 6 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
obesity 8 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
acarbose 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

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Review

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 16797 lifestyle intervention in delaying the onset of diabetes (31% vs. 58%). In the Study to Prevent Non- Insulin -Dependent Diabetes Mellitus known as the STOP-NIDDM trial [[28]], acarbose reduced the risk by 32%,
acarbose 16871 the Study to Prevent Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus known as the STOP-NIDDM trial [[28]], acarbose reduced the risk by 32%, similar to what was found for metformin in the DPP trial but, because the study
acarbose 17074 the study participants are very different between these studies, no inferences can be made between acarbose and lifestyle interventions. There are three additional limitations with pharmacological interventions:
metformin 11269 participants in the DPP trial had a 58% reduction in the incidence rate of diabetes and 31% in the metformin treated group over 2.8 years, compared with placebo. Diabetes incidence in the 10 years since DPP randomization
metformin 11464 years since DPP randomization was 34% (CI: 24–42) in the lifestyle group and 18% (CI: 7–28) in the metformin group compared with placebo, showing that prevention or delay of diabetes with lifestyle intervention
metformin 11579 compared with placebo, showing that prevention or delay of diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin can persist in the medium to long run. The DPP is designed to last four months, with maintenance sessions
metformin 16654 comparators is highly heterogeneous. There are few useful head to head comparisons. For example, in the DPP, metformin was much less effective than the lifestyle intervention in delaying the onset of diabetes (31% vs. 58%).
metformin 16935 known as the STOP-NIDDM trial [[28]], acarbose reduced the risk by 32%, similar to what was found for metformin in the DPP trial but, because the study participants are very different between these studies, no inferences
metformin 32877 that a program would have the same risk reduction on all individuals. For example, in the DPP trial metformin was most effective in people 25–44 years old and in those with a body mass index of 35 and had no
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
metabolic syndrome 14839 effective than lifestyle intervention in inducing weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome . For example, the studies (five, including only individuals with type 2 diabetes) reported mean difference
obesity 2446 characteristics and clinical factors have been shown to contribute to a high likelihood of diabetes, obesity is the principal risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes, irrespective of age [[2]]. The two main
obesity 2824 fat, and specifically visceral fat, might be better predictors than weight [[3]]. Focusing on curbing obesity to prevent diabetes is a leading strategy both because obesity is a modifiable factor and because several
obesity 2887 than weight [[3]]. Focusing on curbing obesity to prevent diabetes is a leading strategy both because obesity is a modifiable factor and because several clinical trials and observational studies show that 5–7%
obesity 5424 incidence. For example, there is enough evidence to show that sugary drinks are a major contributor to the obesity epidemic [[9]] yet the evidence on SSBs (sugary sweetened beverages) taxes on diabetes incidence is
obesity 13808 and few randomized controlled trials have compared bariatric surgery with non-surgical treatment for obesity . The only study that to our knowledge looked at whether bariatric surgery could be an effective instrument
obesity 14415 1000 person-years.Gloy et al. [[24]] meta-analyzed bariatric surgery with non-surgical treatment for obesity on different health outcomes. In that review, there are a handful of studies that either combined individuals
obesity 16326 prevention: oral diabetes drugs, of which the most commonly studied are Acarbose and Metformin, and anti- obesity drugs. While meta-analyses have shown a significant benefit of pharmacological intervention compared
obesity 16511 pharmacological intervention compared with controls (hazard ratios 0.70 for oral diabetes drugs and 0.44 for anti- obesity drugs) [[27]], the set of comparators is highly heterogeneous. There are few useful head to head comparisons.

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