Protective Effects of Selected Botanical Agents on Bone.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
testosterone 7 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hyperparathyroidism 1 endocrinologydiseases
hypogonadism 2 endocrinologydiseases
osteoporosis 31 endocrinologydiseases
prednisone 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
prednisone 18685 [[27],[85],[86]].Salvianolic acid A from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge can inhibit bone loss in rats given long-term prednisone [[20],[87]]. This is achieved by regulating osteogenesis and suppressing adipogenesis in bone marrow
prednisone 32484 bone loss by reducing bone turnover.Salvianolic acid A➢Inhibits bone loss in rats given long-term prednisone .➢Stimulates osteogenesis.➢Suppresses adipogenesis in bone marrow stromal cells.Salvianolic acid
testosterone 16396 vertebrae as compared to the control untreated group [[70]]. Similar findings were reported in the testosterone deficiency, buserelin, and glucocorticoid-induced bone loss model [[71],[72],[73],[74],[75],[76]]. Studies
testosterone 20029 [[89]].Eurycomalactone, eurycomanone, and eurycomanol of E. longifolia have been shown to increase testosterone level in the blood and are capable of inhibiting the sex hormone-binding globulin [[89],[92],[93]].
testosterone 20262 known to enhance bone formation and prevent osteoporosis [[89],[94],[95]]. Testosterone and 5-α-dihydro testosterone suppress RANKL and the number of colony-forming unit-macrophages, thereby reducing osteoclast numbers
testosterone 20895 longifolia, as an androgenic compound, may act as an alternative to prevent osteoporosis associated with low testosterone level [[89],[92],[93]]. It has a good safety profile and convenient oral administration [[89],[92],[93]].2.6.
testosterone 31761 ovariectomized rats.➢Increases bone mineral density at the femur and vertebrae of the rats in the testosterone deficiency and the glucocorticoid bone loss model.➢Restores bone calcium level at the femur and vertebra
testosterone 33115 longifolia➢Androgenic substance with a good safety profile.Eurycomalactone Eurycomanol➢Increases testosterone level in the blood.➢Inhibits sex hormone-binding globulin.Eurycomanone➢Increases testosterone level
testosterone 33213 Eurycomanol➢Increases testosterone level in the blood.➢Inhibits sex hormone-binding globulin.Eurycomanone➢Increases testosterone level in the blood.MyrsinaceaeLabisia pumila➢Used traditionally to treat female sexual problems.➢Stimulates
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hyperparathyroidism 3344 [[2],[4],[5],[6]]. Secondary osteoporosis is due to medications or certain medical conditions, such as hypogonadism, hyperparathyroidism , or leukemia [[7]]. Prolonged use of some medications can lead to bone loss, such as oral or high-dose
hypogonadism 3330 [[2],[4],[5],[6]]. Secondary osteoporosis is due to medications or certain medical conditions, such as hypogonadism , hyperparathyroidism, or leukemia [[7]]. Prolonged use of some medications can lead to bone loss, such
hypogonadism 20608 replacement increases bone density and mass and is an effective treatment for male osteoporosis due to hypogonadism [[89],[93],[94],[95],[97]]. However, it comes with some side effects, such as increased risk for prostate
osteoporosis 2255 properties so that they can complement the currently available conventional drugs in the battle against osteoporosis .1. IntroductionOsteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder resulting from an imbalance of bone remodelling,
osteoporosis 2687 fractures [[1],[2],[3]]. Osteoporosis can be classified into primary (Type I and II) and secondary osteoporosis . Primary type I osteoporosis occurs in women soon after menopause (postmenopausal osteoporosis) and
osteoporosis 2716 Osteoporosis can be classified into primary (Type I and II) and secondary osteoporosis. Primary type I osteoporosis occurs in women soon after menopause (postmenopausal osteoporosis) and in men during and after middle-age
osteoporosis 2782 secondary osteoporosis. Primary type I osteoporosis occurs in women soon after menopause (postmenopausal osteoporosis ) and in men during and after middle-age [[4]]. On the other hand, primary type II or senile osteoporosis
osteoporosis 2887 osteoporosis) and in men during and after middle-age [[4]]. On the other hand, primary type II or senile osteoporosis is due to old age. Both sexes may develop primary type II osteoporosis over the age of 70, whereby both
osteoporosis 2958 hand, primary type II or senile osteoporosis is due to old age. Both sexes may develop primary type II osteoporosis over the age of 70, whereby both trabecular and cortical bones degenerate, thus causing proximal femora,
osteoporosis 3182 vertebrae, and radii fractures. Women have a two-fold higher risk than men to suffer from primary type II osteoporosis due to their low peak bone mass [[2],[4],[5],[6]]. Secondary osteoporosis is due to medications or certain
osteoporosis 3256 suffer from primary type II osteoporosis due to their low peak bone mass [[2],[4],[5],[6]]. Secondary osteoporosis is due to medications or certain medical conditions, such as hypogonadism, hyperparathyroidism, or leukemia
osteoporosis 3751 osteoporotic fractures, particularly at the vertebrae and hips [[2],[10],[11]].Most current therapies for osteoporosis focus on inhibiting bone resorption and reducing bone remodelling [[12],[13]]. Parathyroid hormone,
osteoporosis 3953 Parathyroid hormone, and its analogue teriparatide, are the only anabolic therapies available to treat severe osteoporosis [[14]]. The current drug therapies have been proven to improve bone mineral density and reduce fracture
osteoporosis 4254 Therefore, the search for new drugs is ongoing [[17],[18]]. In addition, the prophylactic agents for osteoporosis are limited to calcium and vitamin D. Recent advancement in phytomedicine has stimulated interests to
osteoporosis 4435 phytomedicine has stimulated interests to transform herbal plants into treatment for chronic diseases, like osteoporosis [[2],[12],[19]]. Some vigorously studied herbal plants have demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects in
osteoporosis 5934 Maxim, Epimedium pubescens Maxim, and Epimedium koreanum Nakai have been used traditionally to combat osteoporosis and menopause-related diseases in China [[27],[30],[31],[32]]. These herbal medicinal plants are used
osteoporosis 6496 and blocking urinary calcium excretion [[27],[30],[31],[32]]. They have also been shown to prevent osteoporosis without causing uterine hyperplasia in the ovariectomized rat model [[20],[27],[30],[31]].The Epimedium
osteoporosis 9021 Ikarisoside A has the potential to be used as a remedy to treat diseases involving rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis [[20],[30],[34]]2.2. The Fabaceae FamilyThe soybean, scientifically known as Glycine max L. (Fabaceae),
osteoporosis 9854 metabolism in postmenopausal women. It could be used as a dietary supplement to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis since isoflavones can improve bone turnover markers, bone mineral density, and bone strength among postmenopausal
osteoporosis 11348 Fabaceae [[27]]. The fruit of this plant is used traditionally to treat bone fractures, osteomalacia, osteoporosis , and joint disorders [[13],[43]]. The fruit extract of P. corylifolia significantly increases the serum
osteoporosis 13512 level [[46],[47],[48]]. This evidence suggests that psoralen is a potent anabolic agent in treating osteoporosis [[46],[47],[48]].2.3. The Arecaceae FamilyOil palm in the palm family (Arecaceae) is mostly cultivated
osteoporosis 15238 [[60],[61]]. Both oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis [[62],[63]]. Oxidative stress has been shown to harm osteoblasts by affecting their differentiation
osteoporosis 16900 (reviewed in [[77],[78]]). The efficacy of palm vitamin E mixture rich in tocotrienol in preventing osteoporosis has not been studied so far. A similar vitamin E mixture, also rich in tocotrienol, from annatto beans
osteoporosis 20202 hormone-binding globulin [[89],[92],[93]]. Testosterone is known to enhance bone formation and prevent osteoporosis [[89],[94],[95]]. Testosterone and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone suppress RANKL and the number of colony-forming
osteoporosis 20588 [[92],[93]]. Testosterone replacement increases bone density and mass and is an effective treatment for male osteoporosis due to hypogonadism [[89],[93],[94],[95],[97]]. However, it comes with some side effects, such as increased
osteoporosis 20862 cardiovascular events [[98]]. E. longifolia, as an androgenic compound, may act as an alternative to prevent osteoporosis associated with low testosterone level [[89],[92],[93]]. It has a good safety profile and convenient
osteoporosis 21638 L. pumila is capable of inducing the production of estrogen. Post-menopausal women are prone to have osteoporosis due to decreased circulating estrogen [[100],[102]]. Estrogen induces osteoclast apoptosis and inhibits
osteoporosis 22859 PerspectivesSeveral important issues should be considered when using natural herbal plants to treat osteoporosis . These issues are (i) selectivity: the mechanism of action, selective binding to sites of action and
osteoporosis 24432 in terms of their pharmacology and therapeutic effect before being tested in patients suffering from osteoporosis and other bone-related diseases.Many natural herbal plants have the potential to be developed as anti-osteoporotic
osteoporosis 25947 readers.4. ConclusionsHerbal plants are a rich source of medicinal compounds that can be used to prevent osteoporosis . Many animal and cellular studies have been conducted to demonstrate the antiosteoporotic effects of
osteoporosis 26794 bone-protective effects needs to be conducted. The use of botanical compounds as an intervention for osteoporosis also faces issues of standardization, selectivity, and safety. These issues should be overcome to promote
osteoporosis 26937 standardization, selectivity, and safety. These issues should be overcome to promote their use in preventing osteoporosis .Figure 1The role of botanical bioactive compounds in regulating bone metabolism. They may act directly
osteoporosis 27494 studyBerberidaceaeE. brevicornum MaximE. sagittatum MaximE. pubescens MaximE. koreanum NakaiE. koreanum➢Prevents osteoporosis without causing uterine hyperplasia in ovariectomized rats.➢Inhibits bone resorption, triggers bone
osteoporosis 33577 compounds➢Anti-oxidant and free radical scavengers-effective free radical scavengers in conditions, such as osteoporosis and rheumatism, which are related to ageing and oxidative stress.➢Anti-inflammatory agents

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