Relevance of the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load for Body Weight, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
metabolic syndrome 5 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 3 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 11 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
hypertriglyceridemia 1 endocrinologydiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 11006 GI and were monitored over 10 h, during which participants consumed four consecutive meals [[15]]. Insulin , cholecystokinin, and ghrelin responses were monitored over time. Although consuming the low GI meals
Insulin 27803 HbA1c was also positively associated with total carbohydrate intake. In contrast, an analysis from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study with 1255 adults with or without insulin resistance or diabetes reported
Insulin 62180 including std breakfast/lunch/dinnerHGI-HCHOHGI-LCHOLGI-HCHOLGI-LCHO↓ Glucose all vs. HGI-HCHO↓ Insulin all vs. HGI-HCHO↔ Hunger (subj)No1 Abbreviations: GDM: gestational diabetes mellitus; GI: glycemic
Insulin 65426 HDL-C, TG, BP (-) Glucose, 2-h glucose (among non-obese)NRNRMcKeown et al. [[31]]2941 adults 27.2 kg/m2+ Insulin ↔ GlucoseNRNR+ Fiber ↔ Glucose, insulinMurakami et al. [[32]]3931 Japanese women 18–20 years+
Insulin 69393 TG, BP (-) Glucose, 2-h glucose (among non-obese)NRNRMcKeown et al. [[31]]2941 adults 27.2 kg/m2(+) Insulin , TG (-) HDL-C ↔ Glucose, Total-C, LDL-C ↔ WCNRNR(+) Fiber ↔ Glucose, insulinMurakami et al. [[46]]3931
Insulin 72180 adults 25–65 yearsR; X21 days/phaseLGI breakfast replacement HGI breakfast replacement↓ Glucose ↔ Insulin , HOMAYesSacks et al. [[63]]163 overweight adults 53 ± 11 years 32 ± 6 kg/m2R; X5 weeks/phaseHGI-HCHO
Insulin 72709 al. [[65]]80 adults 29.6 ± 8.2 years 27.4 ± 5.9 kg/m2R; X4 weeks/phaseLGL HGL↓ Glucose, IGF-1 ↔ Insulin , HOMAYesBuscemi et al. [[38]]40 obese adults 20–60 years 25–49.9 kg/m2R; =3 monthsLGI diet, hypocaloric
Insulin 75298 Total-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG(+) Total-C, LDL-C, TG (-) HDL-CMcKeown et al. [[31]]2941 adults 27.2 kg/m2(+) Insulin , TG (-) HDL-C ↔ Glucose, TC, LDL-C ↔ WCNRMilton et al. [[36]]1152 older adults (>65 years)↔ BMI,
Insulin 79390 adults 25–65 yearsR; X21 days/phaseLGI breakfast replacement HGI breakfast replacement↓ Glucose ↔ Insulin , HOMA ↔ TG, LDL-C, HDL-CYesBuscemi et al. [[38]]40 obese adults 20–60 years 25–49.9 kg/m2R; =3
Insulin 79868 %NoPhilippou et al. [[90]]38 men with high CHD risk 35–65 years 27–35 kg/m2R; =6 monthsLGL HGL↓ Insulin , HOMA ↓ TC ↔ BP, LDL-C, HDL-C, TGNode Rougemont et al. [[92]]38 French adults 20–60 years 25–30
Insulin 80287 LGI/HCHO HGI/HProt LGI/HProt (All LFat, HF)↑ LDL-C w/HighGI-Hprot ↔ weight, HDL-C, TG, FFA, Glucose, Insulin , HOMA, CRPNoGogebakan et al. [[91]]773 overweight or obese adults 18–65 years 27–45 kg/m2R; =6 months
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 62257 Glucose all vs. HGI-HCHO↓ Insulin all vs. HGI-HCHO↔ Hunger (subj)No1 Abbreviations: GDM: gestational diabetes mellitus ; GI: glycemic index; HCHO: high carbohydrate; HF: high fiber; HGI: high GI; Hprot: high protein; LCHO:
hypertriglyceridemia 46414 with greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals <75 years old without diabetes, and with hypertriglyceridemia among individuals 65 to 74 years without diabetes [[76]]. GI or GL were not associated with other components
metabolic syndrome 46339 2 diabetes, suggested that greater dietary GI, but not GL, is associated with greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals <75 years old without diabetes, and with hypertriglyceridemia among individuals 65 to
metabolic syndrome 46551 individuals 65 to 74 years without diabetes [[76]]. GI or GL were not associated with other components of the metabolic syndrome . No associations were found among participants with type 2 diabetes.In summary, findings from cross-sectional
metabolic syndrome 53704 all meals were provided to study participants, 40 obese adults with at least two components of the metabolic syndrome were assigned to low or high GI hypocaloric diets for 12 weeks [[38]]. Weight loss was comparable in
metabolic syndrome 66440 hemoglobin; HDL-C: high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low density lipoprotein cholesterol; MetS: metabolic syndrome ; NR: not reported; T2D: type 2 diabetes; TG: triglycerides; Total-C: total cholesterol; WC: waist circumference;
metabolic syndrome 76402 homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance; LDL-C: low density lipoprotein cholesterol; MetS: metabolic syndrome ; NR: not reported; T2D: type 2 diabetes; TG: triglycerides; Total-C: total cholesterol; WC: waist circumference;
obesity 1178 key words glycemic index, glycemic load, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, body weight, satiety, and obesity . Criteria for inclusion for observational studies and randomized intervention studies were set. The
obesity 4415 of consuming the food. The observational epidemiological work relating GI and GL to overweight and obesity , and to chronic disease risk has been controversial, as has been whether consuming diets with low GI
obesity 5089 combinations: glycemic index, glycemic load, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, body weight, satiety, and obesity . For purposes of this review, studies included were limited to those published in English between 2006

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