Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis Using Chinese Medicinal Plants: Special Emphasis on Mechanisms of Immune Modulation.

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osteoporosis 948 (collection): /2018Publication date (epub): 2/2018AbstractNumerous studies have examined the pathogenesis of osteoporosis . The causes of osteoporosis include endocrine factors, nutritional status, genetic factors, physical
osteoporosis 976 (epub): 2/2018AbstractNumerous studies have examined the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The causes of osteoporosis include endocrine factors, nutritional status, genetic factors, physical factors, and immune factors.
osteoporosis 1230 demonstrated that the immune system and immune factors play important regulatory roles in the occurrence of osteoporosis , and people should pay more attention to the relationship between immunity and osteoporosis. Immune
osteoporosis 1322 occurrence of osteoporosis, and people should pay more attention to the relationship between immunity and osteoporosis . Immune and bone cells are located in the bone marrow and share numerous regulatory molecules, signaling
osteoporosis 1628 the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which results in an imbalance of bone remodeling and osteoporosis . The incidence of osteoporosis is also increasing with the aging of China's population, and traditional
osteoporosis 1659 and osteoclasts, which results in an imbalance of bone remodeling and osteoporosis. The incidence of osteoporosis is also increasing with the aging of China's population, and traditional Chinese medicine has played
osteoporosis 1821 population, and traditional Chinese medicine has played a vital role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis for centuries. Chinese medicinal plants possess unique advantages in the regulation of the immune system
osteoporosis 1969 plants possess unique advantages in the regulation of the immune system and the relationships between osteoporosis and the immune system. In this review, we provide a general overview of Chinese medicinal plants in
osteoporosis 2114 review, we provide a general overview of Chinese medicinal plants in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis , focusing on immunological aspects.1. IntroductionOsteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized
osteoporosis 2417 bone fragility and fracture danger and consequently cause serious complications [[1]]. The etiology of osteoporosis is primarily concentrated in endocrine and metabolic disorders. However, osteoimmunology demonstrated
osteoporosis 2612 osteoimmunology demonstrated that the immune system and immune factors may be involved in the development of osteoporosis and play important regulatory roles [[2], [3]]. The microenvironment created by bone cells provides
osteoporosis 3034 balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which results in an imbalance in bone remodeling and causes osteoporosis [[6]–[8]].Osteoporosis seriously affects human health, and there is no safe and effective method to
osteoporosis 3229 effective method to restore lost bone. However, Chinese medicinal plants reduce bone loss and treat osteoporosis [[9], [10]]. Chinese medicinal plants possess unique advantages in the regulation of the immune system
osteoporosis 3395 advantages in the regulation of the immune system [[11]–[18]] and alter the relationships between osteoporosis and the immune system [[3], [4], [7]]. This review summarizes the progress of Chinese medicinal plants
osteoporosis 3546 This review summarizes the progress of Chinese medicinal plants in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis , focusing on the immunological aspects.2. Immune System and OsteoporosisThe immune system is an important
osteoporosis 4079 molecular levels [[19]–[21]]. Osteoimmunology provides new pathogenetic and clinical interpretations for osteoporosis [[6]]. Many signaling factors and cytokines are involved in this field [[22]]. However, osteoprotegerin
osteoporosis 4614 osteoimmunology [[24]]. Therefore, abnormalities of the immune system may cause bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and inflammatory bone loss [[25]]. Balancing the immune response promotes the formation of bone tissue,
osteoporosis 4748 loss [[25]]. Balancing the immune response promotes the formation of bone tissue, so as to improve osteoporosis .2.1. RANK/RANKL/OPG Signaling PathwayA functional imbalance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts causes
osteoporosis 4864 osteoporosis.2.1. RANK/RANKL/OPG Signaling PathwayA functional imbalance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts causes osteoporosis . As a hallmark of osteoporosis, the increased activation of osteoclasts results in the progressive loss
osteoporosis 4895 PathwayA functional imbalance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts causes osteoporosis. As a hallmark of osteoporosis , the increased activation of osteoclasts results in the progressive loss of bone mass and an increased
osteoporosis 6332 RANKL-to-OPG ratio [[32], [34], [35]].2.2. Immune Cell2.2.1. T CellsThe primary pathological process of osteoporosis is the imbalance of bone resorption and bone formation during bone remodeling. T cells regulate bone
osteoporosis 7532 immune system, regulate bone remodeling, and are closely linked to skeletal-related disease, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [[39], [40]]. Tregs suppress osteoclastogenesis via the production of
osteoporosis 7996 more recently discovered and characterized. Th17 cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and directly produce high levels of IL-17, RANKL, and TNF to promote the formation and activation of
osteoporosis 8212 osteoclasts [[38], [45], [46]]. Th17 cell populations and IL-17 levels were obviously increased in an osteoporosis model of ovariectomized (OVX) animals. Transcription factors related to Th17 cell differentiation are
osteoporosis 9554 rapamycin complex 1 activation-stimulated RANKL expression in B cells sufficiently induced bone loss and osteoporosis [[58]].2.3. CytokinesA variety of cytokines are involved in the pathogenic process of osteoporosis.
osteoporosis 9653 osteoporosis [[58]].2.3. CytokinesA variety of cytokines are involved in the pathogenic process of osteoporosis . Recent studies showed that women with low bone mineral density (BMD) exhibited a proresorptive cytokine
osteoporosis 11332 characterized by synovial inflammation that results in severe juxta-articular bone erosions and systemic osteoporosis . Previous research showed a greater risk of osteoporotic fractures in RA patients across all age groups,
osteoporosis 11857 [[68]].Associations between osteoclast and proinflammatory cytokines may partially explain the cause of osteoporosis in autoimmune diseases. Active immune cells at sites of inflammation produce proinflammatory and osteoclastogenic
osteoporosis 12616 plants in China are used for the prevention and treatment of bone and joint diseases, such as bone pain, osteoporosis , osteoarthritis, and RA. Compounds consisting primarily of these plants, such as Liuwei Dihuang pills
osteoporosis 12882 in clinical treatment. Many studies investigated the important role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis [[70]], and rapid progress has been made in delineating the mechanisms. Therefore, we discuss and summarize
osteoporosis 15752 Toll-like receptor 4/TRAF6 expression [[81]]. Therefore, SIN may be a promising agent for the treatment of osteoporosis .3.1.2. Davallia mariesii Moore ex Bak. and NaringinNaringin is widely distributed in various types of
osteoporosis 16301 of inflammatory cytokine and NF-κB expression [[82]].Naringin exhibited some therapeutic effects on osteoporosis in animal experiments. Naringin inhibited tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity, decreased RANKL
osteoporosis 17218 davidii Franch., Icariin, and IcaritinEpimedium davidii Franch. has been used for centuries to treat osteoporosis , based on the function of “strengthening” bones. Icariin is the primary active flavonoid glucoside
osteoporosis 18147 mRNA, N1ICD, and jagged1 protein expression and increasing Notch2 mRNA in OVX rats, which improved osteoporosis [[93]]. Further research indicated that icariin also promoted bone fracture healing in OVX osteoporotic
osteoporosis 19787 kidney-tonifying herbal medicine in China with a long history for treatment of bone and joint diseases, such as osteoporosis , osteoarthritis, and RA. Eucommia ulmoides and its extracts participate in bone metabolism via activation
osteoporosis 22227 Other Chinese Medicinal Plants and MonomersMany Chinese medicinal plants and monomers effectively treat osteoporosis . Echinacoside is isolated from Cistanchetubulosa (Schrenk) R. Wight stems, and it exhibited notable
osteoporosis 22388 (Schrenk) R. Wight stems, and it exhibited notable antiosteoporotic effects in an OVX rat model of osteoporosis and enhanced bone regeneration in MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro [[121]]. Radix Dipsaci has long been used
osteoporosis 22846 biomechanical quality via modifications of BMD6 and trabecular microarchitecture, which prevented OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats [[123]]. Achyranthes bidentata Blume. and Panax notoginseng saponin are the main active components
osteoporosis 23012 Panax notoginseng saponin are the main active components of Panax notoginseng that prevent OVX-induced osteoporosis via enhancement of BMD, bone strength, and prevention of the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture
osteoporosis 23139 enhancement of BMD, bone strength, and prevention of the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture in OVX osteoporosis rats [[124]]. Diarylheptanoid from Curcuma comosa Roxb. decreased NFATc1 and c-Fos expression via the
osteoporosis 23601 [[126]]. These studies provide a therapeutic approach for the use of Chinese plants in the prevention of osteoporosis .3.2. Compound Recipes of Medicinal Plants3.2.1. LWDHPAs a classic formula of traditional Chinese medicine,
osteoporosis 23967 LWDHP is widely prescribed as therapy or adjuvant therapy for various diseases, such as menopause, osteoporosis , and diabetes. LWDHP exhibits a wide range of pharmacological effects via regulation of the balance
osteoporosis 24924 and corrected the imbalance of CD4+/CD8+ T cells in the spleen.The mechanism of LWDHP treatment of osteoporosis is also related to its immunomodulatory function. The JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays a vital role
osteoporosis 25255 cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor 1 and activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis with kidney yin deficiency [[130]]. Xia et al. suggested that LWDHP could alleviate osteoporosis partially
osteoporosis 25352 postmenopausal osteoporosis with kidney yin deficiency [[130]]. Xia et al. suggested that LWDHP could alleviate osteoporosis partially via a significant enhancement in the levels of Lrp-5, β-catenin, Runx2, and Osx, which were
osteoporosis 25546 Runx2, and Osx, which were involved in the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of osteoblasts, in osteoporosis model induced by ovariectomy and in vitro experiments [[131]].3.2.2. ZGWThe ZGW is another classical
osteoporosis 26052 receptor-related protein 5, and beta-catenin proteins in osteoblasts and BMSCs of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis rats after eight weeks of administration [[132]]. These results indicated that the ZGW prevented and
osteoporosis 26174 after eight weeks of administration [[132]]. These results indicated that the ZGW prevented and treated osteoporosis , and the Wnt signal transduction pathway played an important role in this progress. The Th17/Treg paradigm
osteoporosis 26781 paradigm that skewed towards Treg [[133]].4. ConclusionMany studies investigate the pathogenesis of osteoporosis , and the immunological regulation of osteoporosis is a new research hotspot that provides a new mechanism
osteoporosis 26831 ConclusionMany studies investigate the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and the immunological regulation of osteoporosis is a new research hotspot that provides a new mechanism of the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Immune
osteoporosis 26923 regulation of osteoporosis is a new research hotspot that provides a new mechanism of the pathogenesis of osteoporosis . Immune and bone cells exist together in the microenvironment of bone cavities, and these cells share
osteoporosis 27492 clear.The clinical efficacy of Chinese medicinal plants has shown their advantages in the treatment of osteoporosis . An increasing number of studies demonstrated that these plants play an important role in the treatment
osteoporosis 27612 increasing number of studies demonstrated that these plants play an important role in the treatment of osteoporosis by regulating the immune system, but more research is required. Notably, the mechanism of action of
osteoporosis 27916 multitargeted. Therefore, its regulation of the immune system cannot be the only mechanism for the treatment of osteoporosis . Our continued improvement in understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms of osteoporosis will
osteoporosis 28011 treatment of osteoporosis. Our continued improvement in understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms of osteoporosis will further elucidate the immunoregulatory mechanism of Chinese medicine for the treatment of osteoporosis.Table
osteoporosis 28119 osteoporosis will further elucidate the immunoregulatory mechanism of Chinese medicine for the treatment of osteoporosis .Table 1Chinese medicinal plant targets involved in immunoregulation effects.Chinese medicinal plants

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