Possible Prevention of Diabetes with a Gluten-Free Diet

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obesity 1178 the role of a GF diet in T2D is less clear. Some studies have linked intake of a GF diet to reduced obesity and T2D and suggested a role in reducing leptin- and insulin-resistance and increasing beta-cell volume.
obesity 25085 been observed when the diet was applied in utero (Figure 1).3. Gluten and T2DT2D is associated with obesity and the incidence is expected to increase between 2010 and 2030 [[112]]. Overall, T2D is a result of
obesity 27131 resistance and beta-cell dysfunction in the adult, which, in combination with the effects from ageing and obesity , manifests in T2D [[124]].3.2. GF Diet, Leptin Resistance and the Link to ObesityLeptin resistance is
obesity 27280 Leptin Resistance and the Link to ObesityLeptin resistance is likely involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and thus T2D [[125],[126]]. Leptin resistance has been hypothesised to be the result of insufficient
obesity 28082 binding between leptin and its receptor, indicating that gluten could be linked to leptin resistance and obesity [[125]].3.3. GF Diet and the IntestineObesity and T2D are associated with intestinal dysbiosis [[129]].
obesity 28634 producing the SCFA butyrate [[132]]. SCFAs have been demonstrated to prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity in B6 mice [[133]] and studies in Caco-2 epithelial cells showed that butyrate may decrease intestinal
obesity 32545 stores, fasting glucose, and insulin [[149]]. This indicated that gluten could directly contribute to obesity and hence T2D. The improved glucose homeostasis in the GF-HF mice was thought to involve a reduced inflammatory
obesity 33466 acid-stimulated insulin secretion [[108]]. Not all animal studies have been able to demonstrate these anti- obesity and anti-diabetes effects from a GF diet. As an example, Apo−/− mice were fed a GF diet in utero
obesity 33808 a transient change was seen in the intestinal microbiota [[151]]. Thus, the effects of a GF diet on obesity and T2D have been tested only in a few animal studies, some of which indicate that a GF diet may have
obesity 33942 only in a few animal studies, some of which indicate that a GF diet may have the potential to reduce obesity and T2D (Figure 2).In a randomised, crossover study, T2D patients were fasted and received a test meal
obesity 35614 intervention study. In summary, a few intervention studies have shown that a GF diet may alleviate obesity and T2D in humans (Figure 2). On the other hand, a recent prospective cohort study report that a GF
obesity 36745 and T2D. Moreover, gluten peptides may also contribute to leptin- and insulin resistance, regarding obesity and T2D. Primarily animal studies have shown that a GF diet dampens the innate and adaptive immune system
obesity 37841 the few human studies that have been conducted, although animal studies report improvements of both obesity and T2D. A GF diet is typically low in fibres and other antidiabetogenic nutrients, and studies investigating
obesity 37984 in fibres and other antidiabetogenic nutrients, and studies investigating the long-term effects on obesity and T2D of gluten specifically are therefore needed.Figure 1Gluten free (GF) diet and the development
obesity 39688 proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines and increases the anti-inflammatory adiponectin. A GF diet reduces obesity and improves the regulation of lipid metabolism by upregulating peroxisome proliferator activator receptor

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