Metabolic Syndrome and cognitive decline in the elderly: A systematic review.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
Insulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 3 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 8 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 4 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 8 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 19855 National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel III, EGIR = European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance, ACE = American College of Endocrinology, IDF = Internal Diabetes Federation, JASSO = Japan
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 12805 Inclusion of subjects under pharmacological treatment for systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus was generally accepted as alternatives for the need of identifying high blood pressure, high triglyceride,
diabetes mellitus 35301 represented by fasting hyperglycemia, high insulin, increased fructosamine, elevated HbA1c or diagnosis of diabetes mellitus , may have been more steadily associated with cognitive impairments in older subjects than other components
diabetes mellitus 38601 2012 [[14]]; history of myocardial infarction or other heart disease in Rouch et al., 2014 [[34]]; diabetes mellitus in Viscogliosi et al., 2015 [[15]] etc.)—did no allow the statistical combination of cognitive findings
hyperglycemia 15675 triglyceridemia (≥150mg/dL) or low HDL levels (<40 mg/dl); (2) high blood pressure (≥ 130x85 mmHg) and (3) hyperglycemia (≥110 mg/dL) [[40]].Cognitive assessmentCognitive evaluation was limited to results on the Mini-Mental
hyperglycemia 24675 performanceAnalysis of the individual effects of metabolic disturbances over cognitive performances showed that hyperglycemia was most consistently associated with poor cognitive abilities and with the prevalence of MCI [[13],
hyperglycemia 24962 MMSE scores and risk for MCI were significantly related with central obesity, high blood pressure and hyperglycemia , after adjusting for age, sex, education, marriage status, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity,
hyperglycemia 25153 drinking, physical activity, body mass index, family history of dementia and use of medication, only hyperglycemia remained significantly correlated with MMSE scores and diagnosis of MCI [[37]]. MMSE score negatively
hyperglycemia 25293 correlated with MMSE scores and diagnosis of MCI [[37]]. MMSE score negatively correlated with fasting hyperglycemia in an urban Chinese community sample; in addition, 2-hour plasma glucose levels were negatively associated
hyperglycemia 34091 pharmacological treatment as alternative criteria for the identification of systemic arterial hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia has inhibited the use of the raw values for blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and
hyperglycemia 35217 population was vastly inconsistent. Glucose metabolism disturbances, whether represented by fasting hyperglycemia , high insulin, increased fructosamine, elevated HbA1c or diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, may have been
hyperglycemia 35806 and cognitive decline in elderly population suggested that long-term brain insults associated with hyperglycemia might play an important role for the development of dementia [[48], [49]]. On the other hand, high triglyceride
metabolic syndrome 6160 searches were performed in Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO, using the following strategy: " metabolic syndrome " OR "plurimetabolic syndrome" OR "syndrome x" AND "cognition" OR "cognitive decline" OR "cognitive deficit"
metabolic syndrome 6189 Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO, using the following strategy: "metabolic syndrome" OR "pluri metabolic syndrome " OR "syndrome x" AND "cognition" OR "cognitive decline" OR "cognitive deficit" OR "dementia" OR "alzheimers
metabolic syndrome 16729 cognitive tests are described on Table 1.10.1371/journal.pone.0194990.t001Table 1Overview of studies on metabolic syndrome in the elderly.Author, year, countryType of studynAge (m±sd)MetS criteriaCognitive AssessmentOther
metabolic syndrome 19682 yearsCS = cross-sectional, L = longitudinal, n = sample size, m = mean, sd = standard deviation, MetS = metabolic syndrome , WHO = World Health Organization, NCEP-ATPIII = National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment
obesity 12231 of MetS according to this group comprised the detection of 3 or more of the following: (1) abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm in males or > 88 cm in females); (2) increased plasma triglyceride level
obesity 13820 160x90 mmHg) was proposed by Dik et al. (2007) [[13]]. Different cutoffs for the diagnosis of central obesity were used in studies with specific ethnic populations; for instance: waist circumference ≥ 90 cm for
obesity 14479 criteria were used in two of the studies [[19], [31]]. Detection of MetS was based on the presence of obesity (body mass index > 30 kg/m2 or waist circumference ≥94 cm for Europeans, Sub-Saharan African, Eastern
obesity 24929 vascular risk factors. Although MMSE scores and risk for MCI were significantly related with central obesity , high blood pressure and hyperglycemia, after adjusting for age, sex, education, marriage status, smoking,
obesity 27742 exclusively in APOE4 carriers, after adjusting for age, gender and education, in one study [[24]]. Central obesity appeared as a risk factor for cognitive decline in males over 75 years old after one year of follow-up
obesity 28079 with older samples of both genders and without age limits [[13], [22], [25], [33]]. Finally, central obesity , but not high triglycerides or low HDL levels, correlated with poor performances in the digit-symbol
obesity 29724 associated with high TGRisk associated with low HDLRisk associated with high FGRisk associated with central obesity Yaffe, 200443MSRR = 1.66 (95% CI 1.19–2.32)*-----Komulainen, 200712MMSEn.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.n.s.Word
obesity 33677 high blood pressure through the original NCEP-ATP III criterion (≥ 130 x 85 mmHg). Although central obesity showed little if any impact over cognition of older subjects, the adoption of body-mass index instead

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