Subclinical hypothyroidism in children: is it always subclinical?

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
osteoporosis 1 endocrinologydiseases
thyroglobulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
thyroiditis 1 endocrinologydiseases
goiter 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperthyroidism 3 endocrinologydiseases
hypothyroidism 12 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 4 endocrinologydiseases

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thyroglobulin 10982 the cases with associated celiac disease and in those with initial presence of goiter and elevated thyroglobulin autoantibodies [[36]]. Baseline TSH levels, however, are probably the most powerful predictors of SH
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
goiter 10962 of SH diagnosis, in the cases with associated celiac disease and in those with initial presence of goiter and elevated thyroglobulin autoantibodies [[36]]. Baseline TSH levels, however, are probably the most
hyperthyroidism 5765 nutritional and lifestyle factors, is able to significantly affect bone mineral homeostasis,. Whereas hyperthyroidism increases bone turnover and the risk of osteoporosis [[20]], hypothyroidism reduces bone turnover, thus
hyperthyroidism 6060 on large adult populations documented an increased risk of fractures in both the patients with overt hyperthyroidism and those with overt hypothyroidism [[22], [23]].To the best of our knowledge, there is only one study
hyperthyroidism 12258 noteworthy that, in a significant percentage of DS children with HT-related SH, SH may progress over time to hyperthyroidism [[33]], a metamorphosis which may be observed, more rarely, even in children with no chromosomopathies
hypothyroidism 48 Title: Italian Journal of PediatricsSubclinical hypothyroidism in children: is it always subclinical?R. GallizziC. CrisafulliT. AversaG. SalzanoF. De LucaM. ValenziseG.
hypothyroidism 473 metabolic abnormalities which might be observed in children with longstanding and untreated subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to comment the most recent views about natural evolution of thyroid function in the cases with
hypothyroidism 817 guidelines for an appropriate and tailored management of SH children are also proposed.BackgroundSubclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is a condition that is also known as isolated hyperthyrotropinemia [[1]] and is characterized by
hypothyroidism 1177 common disorder, which may be encountered in 4–20% of cases and shows a tendency to progress to overt hypothyroidism [[3]]. Moreover, it is frequently associated with important adverse effects, such as insulin resistance
hypothyroidism 1905 suggest that SH is a benign and remitting condition, with a negligible risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism [[14]] and controversial association with adverse health outcomes [[15]]. Therefore, the benefits of
hypothyroidism 2959 role in the regulation of brain maturation and function. In fact, newborns and infants with untreated hypothyroidism are at risk of permanent mental retardation. Furthermore, even children aged more than three years at
hypothyroidism 3088 permanent mental retardation. Furthermore, even children aged more than three years at the time of hypothyroidism onset are at risk of developing subtle cognitive impairment, although TH-dependent brain development
hypothyroidism 4705 short stature and bone age retardation are recognized as two common manifestations of untreated overt hypothyroidism .By contrast, no impairment in linear growth and bone maturation is generally reported in children with
hypothyroidism 5842 homeostasis,. Whereas hyperthyroidism increases bone turnover and the risk of osteoporosis [[20]], hypothyroidism reduces bone turnover, thus favouring a gain in bone mass and mineralization [[21]]. However, studies
hypothyroidism 6097 an increased risk of fractures in both the patients with overt hyperthyroidism and those with overt hypothyroidism [[22], [23]].To the best of our knowledge, there is only one study aiming to investigate the bone mineral
hypothyroidism 10758 may be considered as a remitting or self-limiting process, with low risk of progression toward overt hypothyroidism [[34], [35]]. A deterioration of thyroid status over time might be predicted, at the time of SH diagnosis,
hypothyroidism 13060 to deteriorate their thyroid status over time. By contrast, the risk of progressing from SH to overt hypothyroidism is distinctly lower in children and adolescents. Furthermore, cardiovascular and metabolic complications
metabolic syndrome 7421 the association between SH and obesity might play a key-role in conditioning an increased risk for metabolic syndrome . Indeed, both waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were reported to be more elevated among
obesity 7026 [[13]].The pathophysiological mechanisms which may be responsible for such a relationship between SH and obesity in pediatric age have not been clarified so far. However, it has been found that thyroid function may
obesity 7353 cause, of weight gain [[15]].It has to be emphasized, however, that the association between SH and obesity might play a key-role in conditioning an increased risk for metabolic syndrome. Indeed, both waist circumference
obesity 9793 have been documented in SH children, could be ascribed to the presence of confounding factors, such as obesity and inflammation. Nevertheless, a multivariate analysis, aiming to identify the major determinants of
obesity 14999 proatherogenic metabolic alterations may be sporadically observed, especially in the patients with associated obesity . The risk of such complications should be considered when a decision about the management of SH has
osteoporosis 5821 significantly affect bone mineral homeostasis,. Whereas hyperthyroidism increases bone turnover and the risk of osteoporosis [[20]], hypothyroidism reduces bone turnover, thus favouring a gain in bone mass and mineralization
thyroiditis 627 views about natural evolution of thyroid function in the cases with either idiopathic or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis -related SH. On the basis of these preliminary remarks, the essential guidelines for an appropriate and

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