Meat Consumption and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: Results from the Korean Population and a Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

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Insulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hyperglycemia 6 endocrinologydiseases
hypertriglyceridemia 7 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 60 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 2 endocrinologydiseases

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Insulin 3143 association between total meat intake and metabolic syndrome in data from an Epidemiology study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) [[13]]. Several subsequent observational studies have investigated the relationship
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hyperglycemia 1927 consists of an aggregation of metabolic abnormalities including central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia , low HDL cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. These metabolic disorders are also risk factors
hyperglycemia 9657 first quintile, subjects in the fifth quintile of processed meat consumption had a higher prevalence of hyperglycemia (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.60).3.2. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis3.2.1. Study CharacteristicsSixteen
hyperglycemia 19323 processed meat consumption, we found that people in the highest quintile had a 32% higher prevalence of hyperglycemia compared to those in the lowest quintile. These results correspond to former studies, which reported
hyperglycemia 20676 haem-iron. Total and saturated fat might increase metabolic syndrome risk by obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycemia [[43],[44]]. Iron is a strong pro-oxidant, and thus can promote oxidative stress, which can damage tissues
hyperglycemia 24311 the components of the metabolic syndrome such as hypertriglyceridemia, elevated blood pressure, and hyperglycemia .5. ConclusionsIn conclusion, we observed that total, red, and processed meat consumption was associated
hyperglycemia 24752 elevated blood pressure, and high processed meat intake was associated with the raised prevalence of hyperglycemia in Korean adults. Our findings suggest that the effect on health is different by the types of meat and
hypertriglyceridemia 1905 Metabolic syndrome consists of an aggregation of metabolic abnormalities including central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia , hyperglycemia, low HDL cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. These metabolic disorders are also
hypertriglyceridemia 8910 population, subjects in the highest quintile of white meat consumption had a decreased prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.99, P-trend = 0.010) and elevated blood pressure (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50,
hypertriglyceridemia 19696 prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but inverse associations were observed in relation to the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and elevated blood pressure. Korean adults in the highest quintile of white meat intake had a lower
hypertriglyceridemia 19831 blood pressure. Korean adults in the highest quintile of white meat intake had a lower prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and elevated blood pressure, i.e., 24% and 32%, respectively, compared to those in the lowest quintile
hypertriglyceridemia 20269 meat intake also consumed more red meat, and the inverse association between white meat intake and hypertriglyceridemia and elevated blood pressure remained after further adjustment for dietary intakes including red meat.Some
hypertriglyceridemia 24260 Korean adults were significant only in relation to the components of the metabolic syndrome such as hypertriglyceridemia , elevated blood pressure, and hyperglycemia.5. ConclusionsIn conclusion, we observed that total, red,
hypertriglyceridemia 24626 with the risk of metabolic syndrome. White meat intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and elevated blood pressure, and high processed meat intake was associated with the raised prevalence
metabolic syndrome 495 processed meat on chronic diseases including cancer and diabetes, but epidemiological evidence for metabolic syndrome is limited and remains controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of observational studies
metabolic syndrome 688 meta-analysis of observational studies to assess the association between various meat consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome . The PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases were searched through June 2017, and further included unpublished
metabolic syndrome 1161 model to calculate the pooled relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The pooled RR for metabolic syndrome of the highest versus lowest category of meat intake was 1.14 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.23) for total meat, 1.33
metabolic syndrome 1602 factors. Our findings indicated that total, red, and processed meat intake is positively associated with metabolic syndrome , and white meat intake is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome.1. IntroductionA significant
metabolic syndrome 1673 is positively associated with metabolic syndrome, and white meat intake is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome .1. IntroductionA significant increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been observed worldwide
metabolic syndrome 1751 inversely associated with metabolic syndrome.1. IntroductionA significant increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been observed worldwide [[1]]. Metabolic syndrome consists of an aggregation of metabolic abnormalities
metabolic syndrome 2140 factors of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and a large body of evidence suggested that metabolic syndrome is positively related to high risks of CVD [[2]], type 2 diabetes [[3]], specific cancers [[4]], and
metabolic syndrome 2360 total mortality [[5]]. Due to its high prevalence, the development of a preventive strategy against metabolic syndrome is needed to improve public health. The identification of modifiable factors affecting metabolic syndrome
metabolic syndrome 2466 metabolic syndrome is needed to improve public health. The identification of modifiable factors affecting metabolic syndrome may help decrease the burden of death from CVD, type 2 diabetes, and several cancers. Accumulating evidence
metabolic syndrome 2924 the associations between the consumption of red meat, processed meat and white meat and the risk of metabolic syndrome remain largely inconclusive. One cross-sectional study first provided a non-significant positive association
metabolic syndrome 3082 cross-sectional study first provided a non-significant positive association between total meat intake and metabolic syndrome in data from an Epidemiology study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) [[13]]. Several subsequent
metabolic syndrome 3318 observational studies have investigated the relationship between red, processed, and white meat consumption and metabolic syndrome , but the results are sparse and inconsistent [[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24]].
metabolic syndrome 3584 and comprehensive meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between meat intake and metabolic syndrome . In addition, we analyzed the association using the data of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination
metabolic syndrome 4164 lamb OR steak OR hamburger OR ham OR bacon OR sausage OR poultry OR chicken OR turkey) combined with ( metabolic syndrome OR insulin resistant syndrome OR syndrome X).” The reference lists of retrieved articles or published
metabolic syndrome 5176 interest was meat consumption; (3) the outcome of interest was defined as prevalence or incidence of metabolic syndrome ; and (4) they provided relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Studies targeting people
metabolic syndrome 5805 person-years; sex; covariates used for adjustment; RRs and 95% CIs for the relationship between meat intake and metabolic syndrome across all categories of exposure. If the studies reported various RRs on this association, the RR from
metabolic syndrome 6077 all available data in the meta-analysis, we investigated the association between meat consumption and metabolic syndrome in KNHANES 2012–2015 and conducted a meta-analysis including these results. The KNHANES is a cross-sectional,
metabolic syndrome 7340 models, which take into account within- and between-study variations, to obtain the pooled estimate of metabolic syndrome for the highest vs. the lowest levels of meat intake [[27]]. We recalculated the RR and its 95% CI when
metabolic syndrome 8739 high education level than those in the lowest quintile. The association between white meat intake and metabolic syndrome is shown in Supplementary Table S2. In the overall population, subjects in the highest quintile of white
metabolic syndrome 9191 quintile after controlling for potential confounders. The association between red meat consumption and metabolic syndrome is shown in Supplementary Table S3. In a comparison of highest vs. lowest consumption, we found no significant
metabolic syndrome 9379 lowest consumption, we found no significant association between red meat intake and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components. The association between processed meat consumption and metabolic syndrome is shown
metabolic syndrome 9473 prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components. The association between processed meat consumption and metabolic syndrome is shown in Supplementary Table S4. Compared to those in the first quintile, subjects in the fifth quintile
metabolic syndrome 10472 studies used a food record [[17],[24]] or questionnaire [[23],[32],[34]]. The criteria used to define metabolic syndrome were mostly NCEP ATP III criteria or Harmonized criteria from the International Diabetes Federation
metabolic syndrome 11106 Meat Consumption and Metabolic SyndromeNine studies including 52,733 subjects and 18,135 events of metabolic syndrome were eligible for the meta-analysis of total meat consumption and metabolic syndrome [[13],[15],[19],[21],[23],[24],[32],[34]].
metabolic syndrome 11191 18,135 events of metabolic syndrome were eligible for the meta-analysis of total meat consumption and metabolic syndrome [[13],[15],[19],[21],[23],[24],[32],[34]]. The multivariable-adjusted pooled RR was 1.14 (95% CI 1.05,
metabolic syndrome 11868 studies with 7466 cases among 28,181 subjects investigated the relationship between red meat intake and metabolic syndrome [[14],[16],[18],[19],[22],[33],[35]]. The multivariable-adjusted pooled RR was 1.33 (95% CI 1.01, 1.74)
metabolic syndrome 13187 including 11,589 subjects and 2606 cases were included in the meta-analysis of processed meat intake and metabolic syndrome [[17],[19]]. The multivariable-adjusted pooled RR was 1.35 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.54) with no significant
metabolic syndrome 13647 studies with 3731 cases among 15,953 subjects investigated the association between white meat intake and metabolic syndrome [[14],[19],[22],[35]]. The multivariable-adjusted pooled RR was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.97) with non-significant
metabolic syndrome 14543 meta-analysis, a high intake of total meat, red meat and processed meat was associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome . People in the highest category of total meat, red meat and processed meat intake had an increased risk
metabolic syndrome 14669 in the highest category of total meat, red meat and processed meat intake had an increased risk of metabolic syndrome of 14%, 33%, and 35%, respectively, compared with those in the lowest intake category. On the other
metabolic syndrome 14842 those in the lowest intake category. On the other hand, white meat intake was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome risk. People who have a high consumption of white meat had a 14% reduced risk of metabolic syndrome
metabolic syndrome 14942 metabolic syndrome risk. People who have a high consumption of white meat had a 14% reduced risk of metabolic syndrome compared to those who have a low consumption of white meat. All of these associations did not differ
metabolic syndrome 15224 evidence of heterogeneity between studies was found in the meta-analysis of red meat intake and risk of metabolic syndrome . The possible reason for the observed heterogeneity was found in the subgroup analysis by geographic
metabolic syndrome 15448 region. The results from the Asian population showed an inverse association between red meat intake and metabolic syndrome unlike the results from other populations. The observed heterogeneity in the analysis of red meat consumption
metabolic syndrome 15747 = 17.0%, p = 0.31) [[33],[35]]. Moreover, the relationship between red meat intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome became stronger when these studies were excluded (RR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.37, 2.12). This result is consistent
metabolic syndrome 17581 [[36]]. More studies examining the association between white meat and the risk of diseases including metabolic syndrome are required to identify effects of white meat consumption on the incidence and development of disease.In
metabolic syndrome 17884 years, the intake of red and processed meat was not significantly associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome . These non-significant associations are similar to previous results from Asian studies. A cross-sectional
metabolic syndrome 18119 the Thai population reported a non-significant association between meat intake and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.82, 1.23) and women (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.21) in the analysis of
metabolic syndrome 18692 results, which showed positive associations between total and red meat consumption and the risk of metabolic syndrome . This difference in the effect of meat consumption might be attributable to the lower intakes of red
metabolic syndrome 18978 There were a relatively small number of studies which examined the relationship between meat intake and metabolic syndrome in the Asian population compared to the Western population, and thus more well-designed studies targeting
metabolic syndrome 19176 well-designed studies targeting large populations are warranted to identify the effect of meat intake on metabolic syndrome in Asian countries. For processed meat consumption, we found that people in the highest quintile had
metabolic syndrome 19604 [[41],[42]]. We did not observe a significant association between white meat intake and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome , but inverse associations were observed in relation to the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and elevated
metabolic syndrome 20484 red meat.Some potential mechanisms might explain a harmful effect of red and processed meat intake on metabolic syndrome . Red meat contains large amounts of total fat, saturated fat and haem-iron. Total and saturated fat
metabolic syndrome 20618 contains large amounts of total fat, saturated fat and haem-iron. Total and saturated fat might increase metabolic syndrome risk by obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycemia [[43],[44]]. Iron is a strong pro-oxidant, and
metabolic syndrome 21337 with high red and processed meat consumption also might be another reason for the increased risk of metabolic syndrome [[18],[47]]. Unlike red meat, white meat contains a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and
metabolic syndrome 21623 differences in fat content might be the reason for the opposite effect of red and white meat on the risk of metabolic syndrome . In addition, the positive association between total meat consumption and metabolic syndrome, which
metabolic syndrome 21716 risk of metabolic syndrome. In addition, the positive association between total meat consumption and metabolic syndrome , which was observed in the current meta-analysis, might be attributable to the high proportion of red
metabolic syndrome 22034 to examine the relationship between total, red, processed and white meat consumption and the risk of metabolic syndrome . We conducted the analyses by types of meat. Most of the studies that were included in the meta-analysis
metabolic syndrome 22353 physical activity. In addition, the relationships of total, white, red, and processed meat consumption and metabolic syndrome risk did not substantially differ by study design and adjustment factors, and we found no evidence of
metabolic syndrome 23628 adjustment variable are required to confirm the association between meat consumption and the risk of metabolic syndrome . Third, because our study in Korean adults had a cross-sectional design, which assessed information
metabolic syndrome 24233 Lastly, the results of the Korean adults were significant only in relation to the components of the metabolic syndrome such as hypertriglyceridemia, elevated blood pressure, and hyperglycemia.5. ConclusionsIn conclusion,
metabolic syndrome 24449 conclusion, we observed that total, red, and processed meat consumption was associated with a high risk of metabolic syndrome , while white meat consumption was inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome. White meat
metabolic syndrome 24540 risk of metabolic syndrome, while white meat consumption was inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome . White meat intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and elevated
metabolic syndrome 25280 selection of studies included in the meta-analysis.Figure 2Forest plot of observational studies of metabolic syndrome for the highest vs. lowest levels of total meat consumption, using a random-effects model.Figure 3Forest
metabolic syndrome 25437 total meat consumption, using a random-effects model.Figure 3Forest plot of observational studies of metabolic syndrome for the highest vs. lowest levels of red meat consumption, using a random-effects model.Figure 4Forest
metabolic syndrome 25592 red meat consumption, using a random-effects model.Figure 4Forest plot of observational studies of metabolic syndrome for the highest vs. lowest levels of processed meat consumption, using a random-effects model.Figure
metabolic syndrome 25753 processed meat consumption, using a random-effects model.Figure 5Forest plot of observational studies of metabolic syndrome for the highest vs. lowest levels of white meat consumption, using a random-effects model.nutrients-10-00390-t001_Table
metabolic syndrome 25997 1Table 1Characteristics of epidemiological studies included in the meta-analysis of meat consumption and metabolic syndrome .First Author (year)CountryStudy DesignAge (years)SubjectsCriteria for Metabolic SyndromeMEAT ConsumptionRelative
metabolic syndrome 27848 fruit, legumes, cereals, fish, dairy products, alcohol, biscuits, olive oil and nuts, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome components at baselineRed meat 96.4 vs. 38.41.46 (1.22, 1.74)Processed meat 35.3 vs. 12.31.37 (1.15,
metabolic syndrome 31823 pressure.nutrients-10-00390-t002_Table 2Table 2Summary of pooled relative risks for meat consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome for highest vs. lowest meat consumption.FactorNo. of StudiesRelative Risk95% CIsp for DifferenceTotal
obesity 1896 worldwide [[1]]. Metabolic syndrome consists of an aggregation of metabolic abnormalities including central obesity , hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, low HDL cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. These metabolic
obesity 20645 fat, saturated fat and haem-iron. Total and saturated fat might increase metabolic syndrome risk by obesity , hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycemia [[43],[44]]. Iron is a strong pro-oxidant, and thus can promote

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