Wholegrain Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence from Epidemiological and Intervention Studies

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
Insulin 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 4 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperinsulinemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 6 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 6 endocrinologydiseases
type 2 diabetes mellitus 2 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 17537 reduction are not necessarily relevant in relation to the development of overweight.4.2. Metabolic Syndrome/ Insulin ResistanceThe metabolic syndrome describes a cluster of abnormalities that are associated with an increased
Insulin 48279 years-T2DMwholegrain oat-based foods(50–100 g/day)vs.refined grain foods1–4↓ glucose= insulin↓ HbA1c= Insulin resistance(HOMA)Shen et al., 2016 [[71]]Meta-analyses 350 M/F61 years28 kg/m2T2DMwholegrain oat-based
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 459 marilena.vitale@yahoo.it (M.V.)Publication date (epub): 9/2018Publication date (collection): 9/2018AbstractType 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common metabolic diseases and represents a leading cause of morbidity and
diabetes mellitus 2047 recommendations promoting wholegrain foods for the prevention and treatment of T2DM.1. IntroductionType 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common metabolic diseases with 415 million cases estimated globally in 2015;
diabetes mellitus 44215 habits48↓ BW= no changes; ↓ significant decrease; BMI: body mass index; BW: body weight, T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus ; F: female; M: male; WC: waist circumference; and RCT: randomized clinical trial.nutrients-10-01288-t003_Table
diabetes mellitus 47936 5Clinical trials on the effects of wholegrain on blood glucose, insulin, and HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus .Author(Reference)Study DesignStudy Population Participants Age BMI Health StatusIntervention and DosesDuration
hyperglycemia 3265 pathological conditions characterized by interrelated alterations in metabolic and vascular functions such as hyperglycemia , dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension [[4]].Lifestyle interventions aiming at reducing
hyperinsulinemia 39021 improvement of its major risk factors, i.e., overweight/obesity, plasma glucose regulation, postprandial hyperinsulinemia , and insulin resistance. Moreover, habitual wholegrain consumption is also associated with a reduced
metabolic syndrome 17559 relevant in relation to the development of overweight.4.2. Metabolic Syndrome/Insulin ResistanceThe metabolic syndrome describes a cluster of abnormalities that are associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Set-aside the
metabolic syndrome 17897 triglycerides, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure—a core component of the metabolic syndrome is impaired insulin sensitivity. In the last years, several cohort studies have shown an association
metabolic syndrome 18078 cohort studies have shown an association between habitual wholegrain intake and a reduced risk of the metabolic syndrome [[44],[45],[46],[47]].As for the association between wholegrain intake and insulin resistance, to the
metabolic syndrome 20255 to reconcile the evidence from observational studies and intervention trials on insulin sensitivity/ metabolic syndrome (as well as observational studies on the incidence of T2DM that is pathophysiologically linked to impaired
metabolic syndrome 34143 lowering plasma glucose levels [[37],[84]]. Indeed, in a study from our group in subjects with the metabolic syndrome , higher plasma propionate levels were associated with a better insulin sensitivity after a 12-week of
metabolic syndrome 37849 beneficial in reducing the oxidative stress and chronic low-grade inflammation associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome , and insulin resistance [[93],[94],[95]]. With respect to minerals, wholegrain is a good source of iron,
obesity 2845 western dietary habits and low physical activity, and the strictly related global increase in overweight/ obesity are the major determinants of the growth of T2DM prevalence observed in the last decades together with
obesity 8368 established T2DM risk factors: Impaired glucose tolerance, plasma glucose, insulin resistance, overweight/ obesity , and abdominal obesity. The second part of our search has been performed in patients with T2DM taking
obesity 8391 factors: Impaired glucose tolerance, plasma glucose, insulin resistance, overweight/obesity, and abdominal obesity . The second part of our search has been performed in patients with T2DM taking into consideration both
obesity 12971 and a large sample size.4. Wholegrain Intake and T2DM Risk Factors4.1. Body Weight/Body FatOverweight/ obesity are powerful modifiable risk factors for T2DM. Observational evidence has consistently shown that a
obesity 37840 may be beneficial in reducing the oxidative stress and chronic low-grade inflammation associated with obesity , metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance [[93],[94],[95]]. With respect to minerals, wholegrain is
obesity 38972 associated with a lower risk of T2DM, as well as an improvement of its major risk factors, i.e., overweight/ obesity , plasma glucose regulation, postprandial hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Moreover, habitual
type 2 diabetes mellitus 44208 habits48↓ BW= no changes; ↓ significant decrease; BMI: body mass index; BW: body weight, T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus ; F: female; M: male; WC: waist circumference; and RCT: randomized clinical trial.nutrients-10-01288-t003_Table
type 2 diabetes mellitus 47929 5Clinical trials on the effects of wholegrain on blood glucose, insulin, and HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus .Author(Reference)Study DesignStudy Population Participants Age BMI Health StatusIntervention and DosesDuration

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