Effects of uric acid-lowering therapy on the progression of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
allopurinol 20 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
febuxostat 8 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hyperuricemia 6 endocrinologydiseases
type 2 diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
allopurinol 4223 terms were as follows: ‘chronic kidney disease’, ‘chronic renal insufficiency’, ‘CKD’, ‘ allopurinol ’, ‘febuxostat’, ‘probenecid’, ‘sulfinpyrazone’, ‘benzbromarone’ and ‘uric acid lowering
allopurinol 8220 meta-analysis (Figure 1). These studies were randomized controlled trials. The investigated therapies were allopurinol or febuxostat. The follow-up duration ranged from 4 months to 24 months. The subjects were divided
allopurinol 8804 follow-upTreatmentControlDeng2010China61485660.0 ± 11.158.8 ± 9.4Scr level 133∼442umol/L12 months allopurinol 100–300 mg/dNo treatmentGoicoechea2010Spain113Not reportedNot reported72.1 ± 7.971.4 ± 9.5eGFR
allopurinol 8956 treatmentGoicoechea2010Spain113Not reportedNot reported72.1 ± 7.971.4 ± 9.5eGFR lower than 60 ml/min24 months allopurinol 100 mg/dUsual therapyKao2011UK53594670.6 ± 6.973.7 ± 5.3stage 3 CKD and LVH9 monthsallopurinol
allopurinol 9063 monthsallopurinol 100 mg/dUsual therapyKao2011UK53594670.6 ± 6.973.7 ± 5.3stage 3 CKD and LVH9 months allopurinol 300 mg/dPlaceboLei2009China57696848.6 ± 10.249.5 ± 9.8Scr level 133∼442umol/L12 monthsallopurinol
allopurinol 9175 300 mg/dPlaceboLei2009China57696848.6 ± 10.249.5 ± 9.8Scr level 133∼442umol/L12 months allopurinol 100 to 200 mg/dNo treatmentLiu2007China47675745.6 ± 12.546.5 ± 13.8Scr level 120∼400umol/L12
allopurinol 9300 200 mg/dNo treatmentLiu2007China47675745.6 ± 12.546.5 ± 13.8Scr level 120∼400umol/L12 months allopurinol 100 to 200 mg/dNo treatmentMomeni2010Iran40454556.3 ± 10.659.1 ± 10.6type 2 diabetes mellitus
allopurinol 9539 nephropathy (proteinuria, at least 500 mg/24 h and a serum creatinine level less than 3 mg/dL)4 months allopurinol 100 mg/dPlaceboShen2010China51696547.1 ± 11.847.6 ± 12.4Scr level 133∼442umol/L12 monthsallopurinol
allopurinol 9653 100 mg/dPlaceboShen2010China51696547.1 ± 11.847.6 ± 12.4Scr level 133∼442umol/L12 months allopurinol 100 to 200 mg/dNo treatmentShi2012China40624739.7 ± 10.040.1 ± 10.8Scr level < 3mg/dl6 monthsallopurinol
allopurinol 9770 to 200 mg/dNo treatmentShi2012China40624739.7 ± 10.040.1 ± 10.8Scr level < 3mg/dl6 months allopurinol 100–300 mg/dUsual therapySircar2015India93647756.2 ± 10.958.4 ± 14.5eGFR of 15 to 60ml/min/1.73m26
allopurinol 10120 an elevated serum creatinine (Cr) level greater than 1.35 mg/dL (>120umol/L) at baseline12 months allopurinol 100 to 300 mg/dUsual therapyTan2011China140515159.3 ± 9.258.6 ± 8.3T2DM, proteinuria at
allopurinol 10291 therapyTan2011China140515159.3 ± 9.258.6 ± 8.3T2DM, proteinuria at least 500 mg/24 h, eGFR 30-60 ml/min/1.73 m224 months allopurinol No treatmentZhou2009China86444158.7 ± 8.959.3 ± 7.8daily proteinuria greater than 0.5 g and/or
allopurinol 10463 treatmentZhou2009China86444158.7 ± 8.959.3 ± 7.8daily proteinuria greater than 0.5 g and/or eGFR lower than 60 ml/min (at least 3months)6 months allopurinol 100 to 200 mg/dNo treatmentQuality assessmentThe concrete quality assessments of the included studies
allopurinol 14536 UALT on SCr, sensitivity analysis was conducted to explain heterogeneity. Momeni and Zhou reported allopurinol therapy lowered serum creatinine concentration in patients with proteinuria. But excluding these two
allopurinol 16835 rather than uricosuric increasing uric acid excretion exactly. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors including allopurinol and febuxostat inhibited oxygen species (ROS) formation and also improved several different measures
allopurinol 17958 knowledge, this was the newest systematic review on this topic. Bose et al [[36]] evaluated the efficacy of allopurinol as a renoprotective agent in a systematic review of 476 participants. There was no significant difference
allopurinol 18109 systematic review of 476 participants. There was no significant difference in the change in GFR between the allopurinol and control groups. However, their enrolled patients were not restricted to CKD patients and it was
allopurinol 18409 status showed that there was no significant difference in the change in GFR from baseline between the allopurinol and control groups for participants with CKD, but the availability of data from only three studies.
allopurinol 19560 novel drug selectively inhibits xanthine oxidase with apparently stronger hypouricemic effects than allopurinol [[38]]. It does not require dose adjustment for mild to moderate renal impairment and has renoprotective
allopurinol 20431 of kidney function. Thirdly, due to the restriction of amount of enrolled trials, we cannot compare allopurinol with febuxostat on the efficiency of lowering uric acid.In addition, the clinical studies included in
febuxostat 4242 follows: ‘chronic kidney disease’, ‘chronic renal insufficiency’, ‘CKD’, ‘allopurinol’, ‘ febuxostat ’, ‘probenecid’, ‘sulfinpyrazone’, ‘benzbromarone’ and ‘uric acid lowering therapy’
febuxostat 8235 1). These studies were randomized controlled trials. The investigated therapies were allopurinol or febuxostat . The follow-up duration ranged from 4 months to 24 months. The subjects were divided into control
febuxostat 9901 100–300 mg/dUsual therapySircar2015India93647756.2 ± 10.958.4 ± 14.5eGFR of 15 to 60ml/min/1.73m26 months febuxostat 40mg/dPlaceboSiu2006China51315447.7 ± 12.948.8 ± 16.8daily proteinuria greater than 0.5 g
febuxostat 16851 uricosuric increasing uric acid excretion exactly. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors including allopurinol and febuxostat inhibited oxygen species (ROS) formation and also improved several different measures of endothelial
febuxostat 19444 there were insufficient data on incidence of ESRD in Kanji’s [[37]] enrolled studies. Furthermore, febuxostat as a novel drug selectively inhibits xanthine oxidase with apparently stronger hypouricemic effects
febuxostat 19783 independent of serum uric acid reduction [[34]]. Randomized controlled trials about the effects of febuxostat on CKD were rare, but one trial in our meta-analysis about febuxostat was used.Despite its strengths,
febuxostat 19853 controlled trials about the effects of febuxostat on CKD were rare, but one trial in our meta-analysis about febuxostat was used.Despite its strengths, this systematic review had several limitations. First, we did not have
febuxostat 20448 function. Thirdly, due to the restriction of amount of enrolled trials, we cannot compare allopurinol with febuxostat on the efficiency of lowering uric acid.In addition, the clinical studies included in this paper and
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 9400 monthsallopurinol 100 to 200 mg/dNo treatmentMomeni2010Iran40454556.3 ± 10.659.1 ± 10.6type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy (proteinuria, at least 500 mg/24 h and a serum creatinine level less than
hyperuricemia 3352 CKD incidence, whereas some epidemiological studies have reported no significant relationship between hyperuricemia and progression of kidney disease and development of kidney failure [[11]]. Thus, whether elevated serum
hyperuricemia 13650 There are growing studies about factors that promoting progression of CKD and damages that caused by hyperuricemia , and more attention is paid to the effects of hyperuricemia on the progression of CKD. Some studies
hyperuricemia 13710 progression of CKD and damages that caused by hyperuricemia, and more attention is paid to the effects of hyperuricemia on the progression of CKD. Some studies have suggested that elevated serum uric acid is an independent
hyperuricemia 14871 disease was reduced using uric acid-lowering therapy.There were a number of mechanisms of the effects of hyperuricemia on the progression of CKD. Traditionally, hyperuricemia resulted in intraluminal crystals in collecting
hyperuricemia 14927 were a number of mechanisms of the effects of hyperuricemia on the progression of CKD. Traditionally, hyperuricemia resulted in intraluminal crystals in collecting ducts of nephrons, which was similar to the way it causes
hyperuricemia 15956 resulting in elevated renal vascular resistance and reduced renal blood flow [[30]]. In animal study, hyperuricemia rats showed increased kidney inflammation (TNF-α), fibrotic(TGF-β) and oxidative (HO-1) markers, along
type 2 diabetes mellitus 9393 monthsallopurinol 100 to 200 mg/dNo treatmentMomeni2010Iran40454556.3 ± 10.659.1 ± 10.6 type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy (proteinuria, at least 500 mg/24 h and a serum creatinine level less than

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