Capsaicin in Metabolic Syndrome.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
Insulin 10 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 2 endocrinologydiseases
glucose intolerance 6 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 2 endocrinologydiseases
hyperinsulinemia 3 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 30 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 32 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 676 metabolically active tissues, making it a potentially relevant target for metabolic interventions. Insulin resistance and obesity, being the major components of metabolic syndrome, increase the risk for the
Insulin 6864 will focus on obesity and insulin resistance as the two major components of metabolic syndrome.2.2. Insulin Resistance and ObesityInsulin resistance is a reduced response to lowering blood glucose concentrations
Insulin 6894 insulin resistance as the two major components of metabolic syndrome.2.2. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Insulin resistance is a reduced response to lowering blood glucose concentrations despite increased insulin
Insulin 7820 metabolic syndrome that was provided by the World Health Organization and European Group for Study of Insulin Resistance [[53]]. However, the International Diabetes Federation removed the requirement of including
Insulin 8592 components of metabolic syndrome [[59],[60],[61],[62],[63]].2.3. Mechanisms for the Development of Insulin Resistance and ObesityObesity, dyslipidemia, and reduced physical activity have been identified as major
Insulin 8992 and increase hepatic gluconeogenesis, both conditions resulting as an outcome of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in liver and skeletal muscle leads to hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and then dyslipidemia
Insulin 10528 in alleviating symptoms of metabolic syndrome through TRPV1 channels [[37],[67]].3.1. Capsaicin in Insulin Resistance and Glucose MetabolismBlood glucose regulation is an important homeostatic mechanism for
Insulin 10672 MetabolismBlood glucose regulation is an important homeostatic mechanism for proper cellular functioning [[68]]. Insulin , as the only hormone that can reduce blood glucose concentrations, plays an important role. Any changes
Insulin 28009 measures of changes in obesity are not well understood.3.3. Capsaicin in Vascular and Renal Function Insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and obesity create changes in the vascular environment by increasing glucose,
Insulin 40022 Model/HumanCapsaicin Dose (Duration)Effects on Glucose MetabolismMechanism(s) to Improve Glucose & Insulin Responsesdb/db mice and TRPV1−/− mice [[34]]0.01% of diet (24 weeks)↑ insulin sensitivity↓ basal
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 19071 tests [[103]]. Intervention with capsaicin-containing chilies for 4 weeks in women with gestational diabetes mellitus reduced postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, with improved fasting lipid metabolic disorders
diabetes mellitus 41911 sensitivity↑ adiponectin↑ PPARα, PPARγ, visfatin, adipsin↓ inflammatory cytokinesWomen with gestational diabetes mellitus [[82]]5 mg/day (4 weeks)↓ 2 h postprandial blood glucose↓ 2 h postprandial blood insulin↓ 2 h
glucose intolerance 40268 expression↑ intestinal GLP1 secretionC57BL/6 mice [[74]]0.015% of diet (10 weeks)↓ basal blood glucose↓ glucose intolerance ↓ basal blood insulin↑ TRPV1 activity↓ PPARγ activity↓ NF-κB activity↓ inflammatory cytokines↓
glucose intolerance 40546 leptinSprague Dawley rats [[75]]0.025% of diet (8 weeks)↓ basal blood glucose↓ basal blood insulin↓ glucose intolerance ↑ insulin sensitivity↓ insulin intolerance↓ leptin↑ pancreatic β-cell mass↓ pancreatic islet
glucose intolerance 41020 expressionob/ob mice [[77]]0.01% or 0.02% of diet (6 weeks)↓ basal blood insulin↓ basal blood glucose↓ glucose intolerance ↑ insulin sensitivity↓ insulin intolerance↓ ghrelin↓ inflammatory cytokines↑ GLP-1↑ butyrateSprague
glucose intolerance 43072 BAT lipid accumulation↓ hepatic triglyceride content↓ blood triglycerides↓ blood insulin ↓ glucose intolerance ↑ energy expenditure & mitochondrial biogenesis gene expression ↑ intestinal crypt depth, muscularis
glucose intolerance 43590 body weight gain↓ visceral fat accumulation↓ leptin↓ blood insulin ↓ basal blood glucose↓ glucose intolerance ↓ hepatic lipogenic enzymesPiperine [[176]]High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats~30 mg/kg/day (8
glucose intolerance 43764 [[176]]High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats~30 mg/kg/day (8 weeks)↓ body weight↓ systolic blood pressure↓ glucose intolerance ↓ visceral fat accumulation↓ hepatic fibrosis and fat deposition↓ cardiac collagen deposition ↑
hyperglycemia 9049 resulting as an outcome of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in liver and skeletal muscle leads to hyperglycemia , hyperinsulinemia, and then dyslipidemia and fatty liver [[64]]. Obesity has been linked to the development
hyperglycemia 19110 capsaicin-containing chilies for 4 weeks in women with gestational diabetes mellitus reduced postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, with improved fasting lipid metabolic disorders [[82]]. These responses further
hyperinsulinemia 9064 outcome of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in liver and skeletal muscle leads to hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia , and then dyslipidemia and fatty liver [[64]]. Obesity has been linked to the development of cardiac
hyperinsulinemia 19128 chilies for 4 weeks in women with gestational diabetes mellitus reduced postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia , with improved fasting lipid metabolic disorders [[82]]. These responses further reduced the incidence
hyperinsulinemia 19932 responses to insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity in individuals without insulin resistance or hyperinsulinemia [[106],[107]], studies in insulin resistant or hyperinsulinemic individuals would provide suitable evidence
metabolic syndrome 738 relevant target for metabolic interventions. Insulin resistance and obesity, being the major components of metabolic syndrome , increase the risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic
metabolic syndrome 1711 clinical use through the activation of TRPV1. This review highlights the mechanistic options to improve metabolic syndrome with capsaicin.1. IntroductionCapsaicinCapsaicin was first isolated in 1876 [[1]], its structure was
metabolic syndrome 2724 musculoskeletal pain [[7]]. Here, we will review the pharmacological potential of capsaicin to reduce metabolic syndrome .Capsaicin acts through Transient Receptor Potential Channel Vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) [[10],[11]], a
metabolic syndrome 6345 species, which then disturbs the production of adipokines, and can trigger pathology associated with metabolic syndrome [[46]]. Inflammation and oxidative stress are the links between the symptoms of metabolic syndrome,
metabolic syndrome 6444 metabolic syndrome [[46]]. Inflammation and oxidative stress are the links between the symptoms of metabolic syndrome , as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant interventions attenuate the changes occurring with metabolic syndrome
metabolic syndrome 6552 metabolic syndrome, as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant interventions attenuate the changes occurring with metabolic syndrome [[47],[48]]. Obesity and insulin resistance are two major components of metabolic syndrome that predispose
metabolic syndrome 6643 occurring with metabolic syndrome [[47],[48]]. Obesity and insulin resistance are two major components of metabolic syndrome that predispose individuals to develop further complications of metabolic syndrome. Thus, this review
metabolic syndrome 6726 major components of metabolic syndrome that predispose individuals to develop further complications of metabolic syndrome . Thus, this review will focus on obesity and insulin resistance as the two major components of metabolic
metabolic syndrome 6840 syndrome. Thus, this review will focus on obesity and insulin resistance as the two major components of metabolic syndrome .2.2. Insulin Resistance and ObesityInsulin resistance is a reduced response to lowering blood glucose
metabolic syndrome 7430 inflammation [[50]]. Initially, insulin resistance was considered as the major component in the development of metabolic syndrome , and hence, it was called insulin resistance syndrome [[51]]. This hypothesis was supported by an animal
metabolic syndrome 7646 animal study, which provided evidence that insulin resistance developed before other components of metabolic syndrome [[52]]. This was also reflected in the definition of metabolic syndrome that was provided by the World
metabolic syndrome 7718 before other components of metabolic syndrome [[52]]. This was also reflected in the definition of metabolic syndrome that was provided by the World Health Organization and European Group for Study of Insulin Resistance
metabolic syndrome 7992 Federation removed the requirement of including insulin resistance as one of the components for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome , instead emphasizing obesity as the defining factor of the syndrome [[54]]. The incidence of obesity
metabolic syndrome 8221 escalating throughout the world [[55],[56]]. The increasing incidence of obesity, and therefore, of metabolic syndrome , is primarily due to increasing physical inactivity and the increased acquisition of energy from energy-dense
metabolic syndrome 8507 has been established between the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and other components of metabolic syndrome [[59],[60],[61],[62],[63]].2.3. Mechanisms for the Development of Insulin Resistance and ObesityObesity,
metabolic syndrome 10344 presence of TRPV1 on these metabolically active tissues makes capsaicin an important element in targeting metabolic syndrome . Thus, it can be hypothesized that capsaicin plays a crucial role in alleviating symptoms of metabolic
metabolic syndrome 10456 syndrome. Thus, it can be hypothesized that capsaicin plays a crucial role in alleviating symptoms of metabolic syndrome through TRPV1 channels [[37],[67]].3.1. Capsaicin in Insulin Resistance and Glucose MetabolismBlood
metabolic syndrome 14447 sucrose solution for 28 weeks, topical application of capsaicin with exercise ameliorated the symptoms of metabolic syndrome induced by hypoestrogenism by activating AMPK [[85]].These effects of capsaicin are suggested to be
metabolic syndrome 28346 These changes contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, components of metabolic syndrome also contribute to changes in kidney function, and may lead to chronic kidney disease [[137]]. Capsaicin
metabolic syndrome 31817 Fatty Liver DiseaseNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been considered as one of the consequences of metabolic syndrome [[42]]. It includes a range of conditions including inflammation, fat deposition, and fibrosis in the
metabolic syndrome 34507 disease.3.6. Capsaicin in Oxidative StressOxidative stress is an important determinant of the development of metabolic syndrome and its associated complications [[161],[162]]. In ovariectomized Wistar rats given 30% sucrose solution,
metabolic syndrome 35600 the use of topical applications, such as creams or patches [[8],[9]]. While this may be feasible in metabolic syndrome , novel products such as chitosan microspheres, liposomes, nanoparticles, or soft gel capsules may be
metabolic syndrome 35987 that mimic the efficacy of capsaicin but lack its pungency could produce an ideal drug for treating metabolic syndrome . An example is the CH-19 Sweet chilli pepper, containing the three capsaicin analogues, capsiate, dihydrocapsiate,
metabolic syndrome 37730 animal studies providing evidence of the potential health benefits of capsaicin in the treatment of metabolic syndrome , the limited number of human studies has not provided the basis for the development of capsaicin as
metabolic syndrome 38212 metabolism and insulin resistance in these organs; this is an important factor in the development of metabolic syndrome . Thus, identifying responses of capsaicin in humans against insulin resistance in liver and skeletal
metabolic syndrome 38426 skeletal muscle could provide a valuable foundation for its development as a drug against diabetes and metabolic syndrome . As the adverse effects of capsaicin, such as redness, swelling, soreness, dryness, burning, itching,
metabolic syndrome 38663 already known through the use of creams and patches, managing similar adverse effects of capsaicin in metabolic syndrome should be carefully considered.4. Conclusions and Future DirectionsConsidering the importance of capsaicin-sensitive
metabolic syndrome 39173 and pharmaceutical industries for targeting TRPV1 to obtain capsaicin-like activity in attenuating metabolic syndrome [[37]]. A summary of responses to capsaicin through TRVP1 in metabolic disorders is given in Figure
metabolic syndrome 39640 improving metabolic complications. Table 2 highlights some of the TRPV1 agonists that were tested against metabolic syndrome .Figure 1Chemical structure of capsaicinoids.Figure 2Capsaicin in metabolic syndrome.nutrients-10-00630-t001_Table
metabolic syndrome 39724 tested against metabolic syndrome.Figure 1Chemical structure of capsaicinoids.Figure 2Capsaicin in metabolic syndrome .nutrients-10-00630-t001_Table 1Table 1A summary of key studies demonstrating the effect of capsaicin
obesity 699 tissues, making it a potentially relevant target for metabolic interventions. Insulin resistance and obesity , being the major components of metabolic syndrome, increase the risk for the development of cardiovascular
obesity 5362 [[40]]. Apart from pain management, capsaicin may be useful in the treatment of other conditions, such as obesity and cardiovascular disease [[38],[39]]. Further, capsaicin possesses antipruritic, antiinflammatory,
obesity 5765 SyndromeMetabolic syndrome is a constellation of symptoms that typically occur together, including central obesity , insulin resistance, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, and dyslipidemia [[41]]. These physiological
obesity 6163 play important roles in the development of these metabolic complications [[43],[44],[45],[46]]. In obesity , adipose tissue inflammation increases the production of reactive oxygen species, which then disturbs
obesity 6778 individuals to develop further complications of metabolic syndrome. Thus, this review will focus on obesity and insulin resistance as the two major components of metabolic syndrome.2.2. Insulin Resistance and
obesity 8032 insulin resistance as one of the components for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, instead emphasizing obesity as the defining factor of the syndrome [[54]]. The incidence of obesity has been escalating throughout
obesity 8104 syndrome, instead emphasizing obesity as the defining factor of the syndrome [[54]]. The incidence of obesity has been escalating throughout the world [[55],[56]]. The increasing incidence of obesity, and therefore,
obesity 8194 incidence of obesity has been escalating throughout the world [[55],[56]]. The increasing incidence of obesity , and therefore, of metabolic syndrome, is primarily due to increasing physical inactivity and the increased
obesity 8454 junk foods [[57],[58]]. Over the years, a clear link has been established between the development of obesity , insulin resistance, and other components of metabolic syndrome [[59],[60],[61],[62],[63]].2.3. Mechanisms
obesity 9324 oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia playing an important role in its development [[65]]. Inflammation in obesity is characterized by increased blood concentrations of inflammatory markers, including tumor necrosis
obesity 9869 these mechanisms help us to understand how insulin resistance increases the risk for the development of obesity , type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease [[50]], the exact mechanism for the development of insulin
obesity 12025 Capsaicin treatment (0.015% in food for 10 weeks) in mice fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks lowered obesity , fasting glucose, insulin, leptin, inflammatory markers in adipose tissue and liver, and hepatic triglycerides
obesity 18292 diet [[101]]. This study indicates that TRPV1 plays an important role played in the development of obesity and insulin resistance associated with high-fat diet and aging. Thus, TRPV1 agonists such as capsaicin
obesity 21606 epididymal adipose tissues [[81]]. Capsaicin−chitosan microspheres in high-fat diet-fed obese rats reduced obesity more effectively than capsaicin, while decreasing the proportion of body fat. It was proposed that these
obesity 21959 of leptin [[115]]. Capsaicin desensitization of capsaicin-sensitive nerves prevented aging-induced obesity in rats one year after desensitization, indicating a longer-term role for capsaicin in obesity prevention
obesity 22054 aging-induced obesity in rats one year after desensitization, indicating a longer-term role for capsaicin in obesity prevention and treatment [[116]]. Capsaicin in high-fat diet-fed rats decreased serum ALT and AST, along
obesity 23975 microbiota, and hence, improve metabolic health [[123]]. In high-fat diet-fed mice, capsaicin prevented obesity , metabolic endotoxemia, and systemic chronic low-grade inflammation by increasing abundance of butyrate-producing
obesity 24443 ob/ob mice, capsaicin modulated gut microbiota to improve glucose homeostasis, but failed to reduce obesity [[125]]. The changes in gut microbiota included increases in Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Roseburia
obesity 25957 used in this study. Thus, a chronic supplementation of capsaicin may have the potential to attenuate obesity .Modulation of satiety may have a role in capsaicin’s action in obesity. In a controlled feeding trial
obesity 26030 the potential to attenuate obesity.Modulation of satiety may have a role in capsaicin’s action in obesity . In a controlled feeding trial in healthy subjects, 6 weeks of intervention with capsaicin led to an
obesity 27932 performed in healthy individuals for capsaicin-induced satiety, so clinical measures of changes in obesity are not well understood.3.3. Capsaicin in Vascular and Renal FunctionInsulin resistance, type 2 diabetes,
obesity 28050 well understood.3.3. Capsaicin in Vascular and Renal FunctionInsulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and obesity create changes in the vascular environment by increasing glucose, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and
obesity 28625 association has been identified between dietary capsaicin and a decreased risk for the development of obesity , type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases [[125]].Capsaicin-induced activation of TRPV1 resulted
obesity 31981 including inflammation, fat deposition, and fibrosis in the liver. Links have been established between obesity , dyslipidemia, and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [[145],[146]]. Dietary capsaicin
obesity 33077 expression in adipose tissue [[148]]. Capsaicin and antibiotics had synergistic effects on reducing obesity , fatty liver, and insulin resistance in these high-fat diet-fed mice [[148]]. Capsaicin attenuated bile
obesity 33729 clear link has been established between inflammation and development of metabolic disorders including obesity [[150],[151],[152]]. Chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue is now considered an initiator
obesity 33982 to adipogenesis [[153]]. Thus, anti-inflammatory compounds have been used with success in reducing obesity [[154],[155],[156],[157],[158],[159],[160]]. Capsaicin has been characterized as an effective anti-inflammatory
obesity 34333 an effective anti-inflammatory molecule would attenuate metabolic inflammatory conditions including obesity , diabetes, osteoarthritis, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.3.6. Capsaicin in Oxidative StressOxidative
obesity 39373 is given in Figure 2. Deletion of TRPV1 has further raised the profile of this receptor in treating obesity as the deletion exacerbated diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance [[101]]. Many agonists for TRPV1
obesity 39422 further raised the profile of this receptor in treating obesity as the deletion exacerbated diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance [[101]]. Many agonists for TRPV1 have been tested to identify their potential
obesity 42339 Decreased.nutrients-10-00630-t002_Table 2Table 2A summary of studies demonstrating the effects of other TRPV1 agonists on obesity and obesity-related disorders in animal models and humans.TRPV1 AgonistAnimal ModelDose (Duration)ResponsesCapsiate
obesity 42351 Decreased.nutrients-10-00630-t002_Table 2Table 2A summary of studies demonstrating the effects of other TRPV1 agonists on obesity and obesity -related disorders in animal models and humans.TRPV1 AgonistAnimal ModelDose (Duration)ResponsesCapsiate

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