Exposure to Environmental and Occupational Particulate Air Pollution as a Potential Contributor to Neurodegeneration and Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Research

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
Insulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 11 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 2 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 6 endocrinologydiseases
type 2 diabetes mellitus 2 endocrinologydiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 36763 chronic inflammatory response is associated with obesity [[90]], one of the main risk factors for T2DM. Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the most important hallmarks in the pathogenesis of T2DM. IR is directly linked
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 907 hypothesised that environmental air pollution, especially airborne particles, is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and neurodegenerative conditions. However, epidemiological evidence is inconsistent and has not
diabetes mellitus 8135 search, March 2018) for studies using different combinations of search terms, related to diabetes (‘ diabetes mellitus ’, ‘type 2 diabetes mellitus’, ‘diabetes mellitus’, and ‘insulin resistance’), neurodegenerative
diabetes mellitus 8167 using different combinations of search terms, related to diabetes (‘diabetes mellitus’, ‘type 2 diabetes mellitus ’, ‘diabetes mellitus’, and ‘insulin resistance’), neurodegenerative diseases (‘dementia’,
diabetes mellitus 8192 combinations of search terms, related to diabetes (‘diabetes mellitus’, ‘type 2 diabetes mellitus’, ‘ diabetes mellitus ’, and ‘insulin resistance’), neurodegenerative diseases (‘dementia’, ‘neurodegeneration’,
diabetes mellitus 51516 consumption, physical activity), urban/rural residence, cardiovascular risk factors (BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus , HDL). Indoor air pollutant sources.Increase in PM10 by 10-μg/m3 associated with:SRTT (β: −0.36,
diabetes mellitus 69878 [[48]]××ijerph-15-01704-t003_Table 3Table 3Details of studies investigating the relationship between exposure to air pollution and diabetes mellitus .No.Author’s Name & YearStudy Design/Type of StudyLocation/Population Participated Study Period (Average
diabetes mellitus 74890 consumption, household income, family size, education, neighbourhood SES, physical exerciseThe IRRs for diabetes mellitus were 1.63 (95% CI, 0.78, 3.44) and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.07, 1.46)Exposure to air pollutants may increase
diabetes mellitus 76877 Unadjusted: 1.46 (1.20, 1.77)Long-term exposure to PM10 and NO2 were positively associated with prevalent diabetes mellitus The inclusion of all cases of self-reported, physician diagnosed diabetes irrespective of the time of
diabetes mellitus 82821 habits, occupational exposures, marital status, education, alcoholPer 10 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 and diabetes mellitus : HR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.02, 1.26)PM2.5 is associated with diabetes mellitus mortalityNot random sample
diabetes mellitus 82895 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 and diabetes mellitus: HR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.02, 1.26)PM2.5 is associated with diabetes mellitus mortalityNot random sample (included friends and family members). Underestimation of the effect. Reduce
diabetes mellitus 87259 misclassification.Details of a study investigating the relationship between occupational exposure to air pollution and diabetes mellitus 19De Sio et al., 2005 [[62]]Case-controlN = 488 Rome, Italy 2 months (March–April 2001)PM10 in fixed
metabolic syndrome 40819 that diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases are linked, for example it is known that people with a metabolic syndrome , such as diabetes, are at higher risk of developing cognitive impairment [[118]] and Alzheimer’s disease.
metabolic syndrome 42107 arise as a consequence of a common inflammatory mechanism [[131]]. For example, among individuals with metabolic syndrome , those with a higher level of inflammation are at higher risk of developing cognitive impairment compared
obesity 27532 al. who found no strong evidence between PM and T2DM.It is known that an unhealthy diet can lead to obesity , one of the biggest risk factors of diabetes. Moreover, some studies indicate that the effects of PM
obesity 34985 following section.4. DiscussionT2DM and dementia are common multi-causal conditions. An unhealthy diet, obesity , stress, culture, physical inactivity, and genetic predisposition may lead to cardio-metabolic diseases,
obesity 36708 development of T2DM in humans [[89]]. Furthermore, a chronic inflammatory response is associated with obesity [[90]], one of the main risk factors for T2DM. Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the most important
obesity 40955 diabetes, are at higher risk of developing cognitive impairment [[118]] and Alzheimer’s disease. IR links obesity with pre-diabetes and diabetes and is associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline [[119]]
obesity 44421 did not. It is also important that studies consider established risk factors of the disease such as obesity , nutrition, and active and passive smoking. The majority of the studies adjusted for smoking status,
obesity 62254 function CERAD-Plus; Stroop test, sniffing sticks (validated)Age, education, regular sporting activities, obesity , smoking, ETS, indoor air pollution exposure, depression, diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol, stroke,
type 2 diabetes mellitus 900 hypothesised that environmental air pollution, especially airborne particles, is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and neurodegenerative conditions. However, epidemiological evidence is inconsistent and has not
type 2 diabetes mellitus 8160 studies using different combinations of search terms, related to diabetes (‘diabetes mellitus’, ‘ type 2 diabetes mellitus ’, ‘diabetes mellitus’, and ‘insulin resistance’), neurodegenerative diseases (‘dementia’,

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