GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
Exenatide 8 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetic foot 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetic retinopathy 2 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 2 endocrinologydiseases
rosiglitazone 3 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
Albiglutide 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
Liraglutide 9 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
dulaglutide 6 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
metabolic syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
metformin 10 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
pioglitazone 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
sitagliptin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Albiglutide 50014 weeklyLong actingLixisenatideLyxumia®Once dailyShort actingLiraglutideVictoza®Once dailyLong acting Albiglutide Eperzan®Once weeklyLong actingDulaglutideTrulicity®Once weeklyLong actingTable 2Comparison of studies
Exenatide 10777 a modest effect on both glucose levels between doses and fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c control. Exenatide 10 μg twice daily experiences a drop in HbA1c. Exenatide 10 μg experiences a drop in HbA1c of
Exenatide 10837 fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c control. Exenatide 10 μg twice daily experiences a drop in HbA1c. Exenatide 10 μg experiences a drop in HbA1c of −0.78% and the 5 μg a drop of −0.4%, both significant
Exenatide 18357 compared to placebo or other treatments, such as an active comparator, mainly exenatide and liraglutide. Exenatide in both twice-daily doses of 5 μg and 10 μg and in the extended-release formulation and liraglutide
Exenatide 27866 about to undergo a coronary intervention to treat ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Exenatide was effective in reducing the size of the infarct in relation to the ischaemic area and increased the
Exenatide 49845 objective when selecting treatment for our patients.Table 1GLP-1 RAs.GLP 1 RAsBrand nameAdministrationAction Exenatide Byetta®Twice dailyShort actingExenatide-LARBydureon®Once weeklyLong actingLixisenatideLyxumia®Once
Exenatide 49885 patients.Table 1GLP-1 RAs.GLP 1 RAsBrand nameAdministrationActionExenatideByetta®Twice dailyShort acting Exenatide -LARBydureon®Once weeklyLong actingLixisenatideLyxumia®Once dailyShort actingLiraglutideVictoza®Once
Exenatide 51427 stroke32991.99≥50≥7≥50 yrs with preexisting CVD or ≥60 yrs with high cardiovascular riskEXSCEL Exenatide Exenatide 2 mg weekly versus placeboCV death, AMI, or stroke14,7523.2≥506.5–1070% preexisting CVDCANVASCanagliflozinCANVASCanagliflozin
Exenatide 51436 stroke32991.99≥50≥7≥50 yrs with preexisting CVD or ≥60 yrs with high cardiovascular riskEXSCELExenatide Exenatide 2 mg weekly versus placeboCV death, AMI, or stroke14,7523.2≥506.5–1070% preexisting CVDCANVASCanagliflozinCANVASCanagliflozin
Liraglutide 25679 isolated mesenteric arteries in the absence of insulin in a nitric oxide synthase-dependent manner. Liraglutide attenuates induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) and vascular adhesion molecule
Liraglutide 26072 diabetic patients. In vitro studies demonstrated GLP-1R-mediated inhibition of PAI-1 and VAM expression. Liraglutide treatment also increased nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and reduced intercellular adhesion molecule
Liraglutide 28781 improvement in left ventricular function at 6 months and a reduction in the infarct size at one month [[55]]. Liraglutide also demonstrated cardioprotection in a trial with 96 patients with STEMI who underwent percutaneous
Liraglutide 28916 cardioprotection in a trial with 96 patients with STEMI who underwent percutaneous coronary angioplasty. Liraglutide treatment (0.6 mg for two days, 1.2 mg for two days and 1.8 mg for three days) was compared with
Liraglutide 30990 heart failure, confirming the findings of cardiovascular safety trials, which we will review later. The Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) trial, in particular,
Liraglutide 48827 CVOTs present considerable differences in design and enrolment which limits comparisons among them. Liraglutide and semaglutide showed superiority in cardiovascular benefit compared with placebo, both in the presence
Liraglutide 49973 dailyShort actingExenatide-LARBydureon®Once weeklyLong actingLixisenatideLyxumia®Once dailyShort acting Liraglutide Victoza®Once dailyLong actingAlbiglutideEperzan®Once weeklyLong actingDulaglutideTrulicity®Once weeklyLong
Liraglutide 51050 10 mg versus 25 mg versus placeboCV death, AMI, or stroke70003.1≥187–10Preexisting CVDLEADER Liraglutide Liraglutide versus placeboCV death, AMI, or stroke93403.8≥50≥7≥50 yrs with preexisting disease:
Liraglutide 51061 versus 25 mg versus placeboCV death, AMI, or stroke70003.1≥187–10Preexisting CVDLEADERLiraglutide Liraglutide versus placeboCV death, AMI, or stroke93403.8≥50≥7≥50 yrs with preexisting disease: CVD/cerebrovascular/renal
dulaglutide 11591 pharmacodynamic action. They are administered daily (liraglutide) or weekly (exenatide-LAR, albiglutide, and dulaglutide ). In head-to-head studies, they show better efficacy in reducing fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c control
dulaglutide 12275 26-week follow-up, liraglutide showed a reduction of −1.2%, compared to −0.79%. In the AWARD-1 study, dulaglutide was superior to twice-daily exenatide (−1.51% for dulaglutide 1.5 mg/week, −1.30% for dulaglutide
dulaglutide 12339 to −0.79%. In the AWARD-1 study, dulaglutide was superior to twice-daily exenatide (−1.51% for dulaglutide 1.5 mg/week, −1.30% for dulaglutide 0.75 mg/week, and −0.99 for twice-daily exenatide) [[20]].
dulaglutide 12379 dulaglutide was superior to twice-daily exenatide (−1.51% for dulaglutide 1.5 mg/week, −1.30% for dulaglutide 0.75 mg/week, and −0.99 for twice-daily exenatide) [[20]]. But, due to tachyphylaxis, they do not
dulaglutide 22802 of −1.4 to −3 kg when it was used alone or added to metformin (AWARD-3). The weight loss with dulaglutide was similar to that of metformin when both were used alone and greater than sitagliptin when added to
dulaglutide 30805 heart failure.Meta-analyses of phase II/III clinical trials of exenatide, liraglutide, albiglutide, and dulaglutide have shown that they do not increase the risk of hospitalization for heart failure, confirming the findings
metformin 22146 resulted in a weight loss of between 1 and 3.2 kg in 26–52 weeks when it was used alone or added to metformin or metformin plus rosiglitazone. The weight loss observed with liraglutide was dose-dependent [[40]–[43]].
metformin 22159 weight loss of between 1 and 3.2 kg in 26–52 weeks when it was used alone or added to metformin or metformin plus rosiglitazone. The weight loss observed with liraglutide was dose-dependent [[40]–[43]]. In the
metformin 22535 Study) showed no significant weight losses compared with placebo when it was used alone or added to metformin or pioglitazone. It did, however, provide a discrete reduction in weight when added to SU (−1.76 kg)
metformin 22760 [[45]–[47]].Dulaglutide resulted in a weight loss of −1.4 to −3 kg when it was used alone or added to metformin (AWARD-3). The weight loss with dulaglutide was similar to that of metformin when both were used alone
metformin 22837 used alone or added to metformin (AWARD-3). The weight loss with dulaglutide was similar to that of metformin when both were used alone and greater than sitagliptin when added to metformin (AWARD-5) [[48], [49]].In
metformin 22916 was similar to that of metformin when both were used alone and greater than sitagliptin when added to metformin (AWARD-5) [[48], [49]].In the HARMONY studies, albiglutide was found to be neutral in terms of weight,
metformin 23079 albiglutide was found to be neutral in terms of weight, both when compared with placebo and when added to metformin , metformin + glimepiride or metformin + pioglitazone (HARMONY 1, 3, and 5) [[50]–[52]].There
metformin 23090 found to be neutral in terms of weight, both when compared with placebo and when added to metformin, metformin + glimepiride or metformin + pioglitazone (HARMONY 1, 3, and 5) [[50]–[52]].There are few
metformin 23121 weight, both when compared with placebo and when added to metformin, metformin + glimepiride or metformin + pioglitazone (HARMONY 1, 3, and 5) [[50]–[52]].There are few studies comparing the effects of
metformin 24634 during a hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Similarly, in an observational study of 20 diabetic subjects receiving metformin , exenatide treatment (twice daily) for 16 weeks improved flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial
pioglitazone 22548 no significant weight losses compared with placebo when it was used alone or added to metformin or pioglitazone . It did, however, provide a discrete reduction in weight when added to SU (−1.76 kg) [[45]–[47]].Dulaglutide
pioglitazone 23137 when compared with placebo and when added to metformin, metformin + glimepiride or metformin + pioglitazone (HARMONY 1, 3, and 5) [[50]–[52]].There are few studies comparing the effects of the GLP-1 RAs on
rosiglitazone 6560 2007, cardiologist Steve Nissen published a meta-analysis suggesting that, compared to a control group, rosiglitazone treatment showed a statistically significantly higher risk of myocardial infarction and an increase
rosiglitazone 6728 risk of myocardial infarction and an increase in mortality close to statistical significance. Since rosiglitazone was withdrawn in 2010 due to this potentially harmful cardiovascular effect, studies must now demonstrate
rosiglitazone 22174 between 1 and 3.2 kg in 26–52 weeks when it was used alone or added to metformin or metformin plus rosiglitazone . The weight loss observed with liraglutide was dose-dependent [[40]–[43]]. In the SCALE trial, high
sitagliptin 22890 weight loss with dulaglutide was similar to that of metformin when both were used alone and greater than sitagliptin when added to metformin (AWARD-5) [[48], [49]].In the HARMONY studies, albiglutide was found to be neutral
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetic foot 3598 include diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. Mixed complications are also common such as diabetic foot and erectile dysfunction.Descriptive studies have noted a gradual decline in complications these recent
diabetic retinopathy 3503 cerebral and peripheral vascular disease and cardiovascular disease. Microvascular complications include diabetic retinopathy , neuropathy, and nephropathy. Mixed complications are also common such as diabetic foot and erectile
diabetic retinopathy 42218 heart rate with respect to placebo of 2 bpm (0.5 mg group) and 2.5 bpm (1 mg) (p < 0.001).Fifty diabetic retinopathy complications occurred in the semaglutide arm and 29 in the placebo arm (HR = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.11–2.78;
metabolic syndrome 25247 function could be by indirect mechanisms.The intra-arterial infusion of GLP-1 in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome improved acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced forearm blood flow only in the presence of
obesity 5980 accompanying constellation of other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) (hypertension [HT], smoking, obesity , dyslipidaemia, and so on) [[9], [10]].The choice of treatment in a patient with T2DM is complex, not
obesity 14080 affects 79.4% of diabetic adults in Spain, according to the Di@bet.es study [[24]]. Excess weight and obesity , insulin resistance, and hyperglycaemia itself are the main factors associated with its greater presence.The

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