Life course factors associated with metabolically healthy obesity: a protocol for the systematic review of longitudinal studies.

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diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 2 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 23 endocrinologydiseases
type 2 diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
cortisol 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs

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cortisol 11833 status, social occupational class, income, education and measures of the stress response, e.g. diurnal cortisol rhythms). To be included, exposures can be measured at any point in the participants’ lifetime, but
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diabetes mellitus 3010 prevalence estimated to be 25.7% [[1]]. Obesity and its associated disease outcomes such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) pose an individual and economic burden worldwide. It
metabolic syndrome 2076 factors in an obese group without specifying MHO will also be accepted, such as the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in an obese group. Key results of included studies will be tabulated, and a narrative synthesis
metabolic syndrome 12843 definition to diagnose MHO [[22]]. Some studies use obesity accompanied by the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) to diagnose MUO or MHO, whilst some studies use the presence or absence of selected cardiometabolic
obesity 83 Title: Systematic ReviewsLife course factors associated with metabolically healthy obesity : a protocol for the systematic review of longitudinal studiesE. M. RobsonS. CostaM. HamerW. JohnsonPublication
obesity 1624 ≥ 1 life course exposure and ≥ 1 outcome that reflects a measure of cardiometabolic resilience to obesity . Accepted life course exposures will include body size, body composition, pubertal development, smoking,
obesity 1861 sedentary behaviour, and psychosocial stress. The primary measure of cardiometabolic resilience to obesity will be MHO as an outcome (at follow-up). Studies investigating the development of cardiometabolic risk
obesity 2903 public health problem in both developed and developing countries, with the global age-standardised obesity prevalence estimated to be 25.7% [[1]]. Obesity and its associated disease outcomes such as type 2 diabetes
obesity 3211 burden worldwide. It is estimated that by 2030, the costs due to preventable diseases associated with obesity will cost the United Kingdom (UK) £26 billion and the Unites States of America (USA) $66 billion annually
obesity 3600 decreased health risks compared to other obese participants [[3]]. The concept of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) has thus been proposed. Metabolically healthy obesity
obesity 3642 participants [[3]]. The concept of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) has thus been proposed. Metabolically healthy obesity is a condition characterised by obesity
obesity 3702 obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) has thus been proposed. Metabolically healthy obesity is a condition characterised by obesity in the absence of metabolic abnormalities (e.g. high blood pressure,
obesity 3742 obesity (MUO) has thus been proposed. Metabolically healthy obesity is a condition characterised by obesity in the absence of metabolic abnormalities (e.g. high blood pressure, high blood glucose, adverse lipid
obesity 3906 blood pressure, high blood glucose, adverse lipid profile). On the other hand, metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) is characterised by obesity accompanied by metabolic abnormalities. The estimated prevalence of
obesity 3940 adverse lipid profile). On the other hand, metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) is characterised by obesity accompanied by metabolic abnormalities. The estimated prevalence of the MHO phenotype varies due to
obesity 5866 interventions to prevent or delay the development of cardiometabolic disease, even in the presence of obesity .To date research which has investigated why differences exist between the metabolic health of obese
obesity 11038 development, lifestyle behaviour, or psychosocial stress) and ≥ 1 measure of cardiometabolic resilience to obesity as an outcome?Yes, No, or Not Clear• 3) Study design: Is it a longitudinal observational design where
obesity 12009 the participants’ lifetime, but this must be before the outcome of cardiometabolic resilience to obesity has been measured. The exposure measurements can be self-reported or measured directly by researchers
obesity 12223 medical staff.Outcome(s)Studies will be included if they have measured cardiometabolic resilience to obesity as an outcome. Cardiometabolic resilience in the present study is defined as an obese individual’s
obesity 12665 glucose metabolism, and systemic inflammation [[21]].The primary measure of cardiometabolic resilience to obesity will be MHO. To date, there is no universal consensus of a standard definition to diagnose MHO [[22]].
obesity 12793 date, there is no universal consensus of a standard definition to diagnose MHO [[22]]. Some studies use obesity accompanied by the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) to diagnose MUO or MHO, whilst some
obesity 13329 definition. Other terms used to describe MHO or MUO such as cardiometabolic/metabolic health/unhealthy obese/ obesity , cardiometabolic/metabolic abnormal/normal obese/obesity, and cardiometabolic/metabolic benign/at-risk
obesity 13386 cardiometabolic/metabolic health/unhealthy obese/obesity, cardiometabolic/metabolic abnormal/normal obese/ obesity , and cardiometabolic/metabolic benign/at-risk obesity will be accepted as a measure of MHO.In addition,
obesity 13440 cardiometabolic/metabolic abnormal/normal obese/obesity, and cardiometabolic/metabolic benign/at-risk obesity will be accepted as a measure of MHO.In addition, there are studies where the development of cardiometabolic
obesity 20525 be important in understanding what we currently know on the subject of cardiometabolic resilience to obesity and identifying gaps for future research. In particular, results of the study offer the potential to
obesity 20931 improve the health outcomes of the obese is of particular significance considering the high rates of obesity globally [[1]], and the financial burden placed upon countries healthcare systems, in part due to the
obesity 21102 healthcare systems, in part due to the cardiometabolic complications associated with overweight and obesity [[2]].Additional filesAdditional file 1:Figure S1. Search strategy (MEDLINE via EBSCO). (PDF 119 kb)Additional
type 2 diabetes mellitus 3003 obesity prevalence estimated to be 25.7% [[1]]. Obesity and its associated disease outcomes such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) pose an individual and economic burden worldwide. It

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