Is Matrix Gla Protein Associated with Vascular Calcification? A Systematic Review.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
vitamin K deficiency 1 endocrinologydiseases
calciphylaxis 1 endocrinologydiseases
cholecalciferol 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
vascular calcification 43 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
cholecalciferol 44652 treatment[[24]]Prospective, randomized, and double-blind Non-dialyzed with CKD stages 3–5 (n = 42)10 μg of cholecalciferol (D n = 12)/90 μg (menaquinone, MK-7) with 10 μg of cholecalciferol (K + D n = 28) D: 55.4 ± 15.2K
cholecalciferol 44721 stages 3–5 (n = 42)10 μg of cholecalciferol (D n = 12)/90 μg (menaquinone, MK-7) with 10 μg of cholecalciferol (K + D n = 28) D: 55.4 ± 15.2K + D; 59.4 ± 9.6D; 61.5%K + D; 52%MSCT Agatston scoreCoronaryMGP dp-ucMGPCAC
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
calciphylaxis 35692 stainingCoronaryAortaMGPImmunohisto-chemistryMGP was associated with calcified deposits and sites of early calcification in calciphylaxis and atherosclerosis, and was not detected in normal vessels or in vessels with fibrointimal proliferation.MGP
vascular calcification 924 3/2018Publication date (collection): 4/2018AbstractSpecific patient cohorts are at increased risk of vascular calcification . Functional matrix-gla protein (MGP), a tissue-derived vitamin K dependent protein, is reported to be
vascular calcification 1075 protein (MGP), a tissue-derived vitamin K dependent protein, is reported to be an important inhibitor of vascular calcification and may have clinical potential to modify the progression of vascular calcification through regulation
vascular calcification 1159 important inhibitor of vascular calcification and may have clinical potential to modify the progression of vascular calcification through regulation of functional MGP fractions. This systematic review examines twenty-eight studies
vascular calcification 1372 twenty-eight studies which assess the relationship between circulating protein expressions of MGP species and vascular calcification in different arterial beds. The included studies examined participants with atherosclerosis, chronic
vascular calcification 2264 circulating fractions of MGP may be influenced differently depending on the local disease states related to vascular calcification development. Further studies examining the influence of non-functional MGP levels, with respect to specific
vascular calcification 2740 induces major arterial occlusions and stiffening, which can be largely driven by the development of vascular calcification , and the associated hemodynamic consequences cause high rates of hypertension, myocardial infarction,
vascular calcification 3149 peripheral arterial disease are predisposed to lower limb amputations [[3],[4]]. A prognosticator of vascular calcification development is a prerequisite for identifying high risk patients and may have predictive power for either
vascular calcification 3971 smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the arterial medial layer [[6]] and is considered a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification . Cell culture evidence suggests MGP is also strongly expressed in endothelial cells, from where it is
vascular calcification 4788 identification of the circulating MPG levels may have the clinical potential to attenuate the progression of vascular calcification [[10]] and provide incremental prognostic information for a cardiovascular related clinical event beyond
vascular calcification 5392 anticoagulants. It is thought that only functional (γ-carboxylated and serine phosphorylated) MGP can inhibit vascular calcification as low levels of functional MGP have indicated higher levels of vascular calcification in specific patient
vascular calcification 5479 can inhibit vascular calcification as low levels of functional MGP have indicated higher levels of vascular calcification in specific patient groups including those suffering from stable ischemic disease [[13]], diabetes [[14],[15]],
vascular calcification 6184 with future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality [[13],[19]] and also with the extent of prevalent vascular calcification [[17],[20]].As a consequence of the conflicting evidence, the pathophysiological mechanisms which result
vascular calcification 6583 primary aim of this systematic review was to determine the relationship between MGP and the presence of vascular calcification . 2. Methodology2.1. Search StrategyThis review was registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD 42017084544)
vascular calcification 8765 terms of clinical outcome, the studies had to report results from an outcome measure in the domain of vascular calcification . Studies were not required to have a certain follow-up period.2.3. Study Selection and Data ExtractionA
vascular calcification 9916 study participation and sample size, (2) measurement of risk factor (MGP), (3) measurement of outcome ( vascular calcification ), (4) statistical analysis and reporting and (5) measurement of and controlling for confounding variables.
vascular calcification 13998 digital arteries (n = 1) and non-specified locations (n = 1). The majority of studies quantified the vascular calcification from computed tomography (CT) scans (n = 24). Aortic Calcification Severity (AC-24) scores (n = 1),
vascular calcification 17082 DiabetesTable 5 summarises the two studies [[12],[13]] which reported the relationship between MGP and vascular calcification in diabetic patients which were both rated as having a low risk of bias. In one study, dp-ucMGP was
vascular calcification 18290 of these, four reported on the influence of vitamin K supplementation on MGP concentration and the vascular calcification progression. The studies in this sub group were rated both as having a low risk of bias (n = 1) and
vascular calcification 18607 supplementation and one [[44]] examined vitamin K1. No studies found an influence on the progression of vascular calcification despite the reduced non-functional fraction of circulating MGP with respect to vitamin K2 supplementation.
vascular calcification 19282 the first of its kind to investigate the association between MGP concentration and the presence of vascular calcification in a number of specific patient populations. The review underscores the conflicting results regarding
vascular calcification 19611 literature, which has evaluated a number of MGP assays in different patient groups at high risk of vascular calcification , it highlights the multifaceted relationship that exists between the two factors. It is not yet clear
vascular calcification 19808 factors. It is not yet clear which MGP species is the most suitable and robust predictor of specific vascular calcification subtypes in given locations for a particular disease state. 4.1. MGP SpeciesCirculating concentrations
vascular calcification 20252 analysed in the articles reviewed; however, no single MGP species demonstrated a stronger association with vascular calcification . Of the eleven studies that measured t-ucMGP fraction, 54% had a significant correlation with the calcification
vascular calcification 22145 calcification. Among these studies, a strong positive relationship between high levels of dp-ucMGP and vascular calcification in CKD patients [[26]] was reported among coumarins users [[31]] and individuals with diabetes [[14]].The
vascular calcification 23663 each disease state. Multiple mechanisms have been hypothesised as to how functional MGP can inhibit vascular calcification [[53],[54]]. In this review, the calcification of coronary arteries was predominantly assessed in all
vascular calcification 24406 femoral arteries [[56]]. The results of this review imply that the role of MGP may differ between local vascular calcification developments with respect to CVD subtypes. The in vivo calcification measurements were predominantly
vascular calcification 25907 articles included were designed as cross sectional studies, assessing the frequency and distribution of vascular calcification with respect to the concentration of different MGP fractions in specific patient cohorts. It is therefore
vascular calcification 26629 measurements as a biomarker for calcification and its molecular capability to modify the progression of vascular calcification . The clinical trials articles included in this review report on vitamin K supplementation with respect
vascular calcification 26777 articles included in this review report on vitamin K supplementation with respect to the progression of vascular calcification and changes in MGP levels have reported conflicting outcomes. The levels of dp-ucMGP significantly decreased
vascular calcification 27453 ucMGP to its active form. However, whether vitamin K supplementation can influence the progression of vascular calcification remains unknown. In the case of low vitamin K status, carboxylation is prevented, and thus, vitamin
vascular calcification 27879 reference populations indicate that they are sub-clinically vitamin K deficient and are thus predisposed to vascular calcification due to the loss of calcification inhibition [[36]].4.4. Future Research and Clinical ImplicationsWhile
vascular calcification 28351 circulating fractions of MGP may be influenced differently depending on local disease states related to vascular calcification development. It has been shown that the variation in MGP fractions and the measurement techniques employed
vascular calcification 28724 the established measurement protocols in order to interpret the true value in MGP as a predictor of vascular calcification . Robust prospective studies and randomised controlled trials incorporating multi-centres and a wide
vascular calcification 30799 generated in this review is a fundamental first step for investigating the association between MGP and vascular calcification . The quantification of the non-functional fractions of MGP advocates their potential for identifying
vascular calcification 30942 of the non-functional fractions of MGP advocates their potential for identifying territory specific vascular calcification development in a number of patient cohorts. Notwithstanding, a clear depiction of the associations between
vascular calcification 33585 low for study confounding.nutrients-10-00415-t002_Table 2Table 2Association between MGP fractions and vascular calcification in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease patients.AuthorStudyPopulationOutcome MeasureStudy DesignCohortAge
vascular calcification 36252 atherosclerotic plaque.nutrients-10-00415-t003_Table 3Table 3Association between MGP fractions and vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease patients.AuthorStudyPopulationOutcome MeasureMain FindingsStudy DesignCohortAge
vascular calcification 36794 Femoral Radial DigitalMGPImmunohistochemistryNo significant difference was found between patients with vascular calcification scores of <4 and ≥4 in the expression of MGP in the wall of the radial artery.[[45]]Cross sectionalESRD
vascular calcification 38462 compared with patients with fewer calcifications.Dp-ucMGP levels did not correlate with the extent of vascular calcification s.[[17]]Cross sectionalCaucasian CKD patients (n = 107)67 ± 1360%Multi slice spiral CT Kauppila scoreAortadp-ucMGPA
vascular calcification 40236 chronic kidney disease.nutrients-10-00415-t004_Table 4Table 4Association between MGP fractions and vascular calcification in patients taking vitamin K antagonists.AuthorStudy PopulationOutcome MeasureMain FindingsStudy DesignCohortAge
vascular calcification 40829 desphosphorylated uncarboxylated MGP.nutrients-10-00415-t005_Table 5Table 5Association between MGP fractions and vascular calcification in diabetic patients.AuthorStudyPopulationOutcome MeasureMain FindingsStudy DesignCohortAge (Years)Sex
vascular calcification 41954 multislice computed tomography.nutrients-10-00415-t006_Table 6Table 6Association between MGP fractions and vascular calcification in a healthy population cohort.AuthorStudyPopulationOutcome MeasureMain FindingsStudy DesignCohortAge
vascular calcification 43747 coronary heart disease.nutrients-10-00415-t007_Table 7Table 7Association between MGP fractions and vascular calcification in patients taking vitamin K supplementation.AuthorStudyPopulationOutcome MeasureMain FindingsStudy
vitamin K deficiency 29270 vitamin K intake which would help to elucidate the functionality of these biomarkers with respect to vitamin K deficiency and subsequent CVD disease state. Furthermore, it is also very important that future studies control

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