The role of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors in management of cardiovascular disease in diabetes; focus on linagliptin.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
hyperglycemia 4 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
metformin 5 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
obesity 16 endocrinologydiseases
sitagliptin 3 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
type 2 diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetes mellitus 3 endocrinologydiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
metformin 3369 strategies as either stand-alone or add-on therapy to conventional glucose lowering medications, such as metformin , sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones and insulin. The emphasis on their CV safety is becoming an emerging
metformin 39936 an SGLT2 inhibitorThe first line therapy for management of glycemia for T2DM throughout the world is metformin [[203]]; however, over time, the effectiveness of metformin monotherapy in achieving target HbA1c diminishes
metformin 39996 glycemia for T2DM throughout the world is metformin [[203]]; however, over time, the effectiveness of metformin monotherapy in achieving target HbA1c diminishes in a majority of patients [[204]]. This lack of adequate
metformin 40515 including linagliptin, could potentially complement the effects of other CV protective agents such as metformin [[208]], angiotensin type 2 receptor blockers (ARB) [[41], [209]], statins, and SGLT2 inhibitors [[210]–[212]].
metformin 40734 [[210]–[212]]. Importantly, there is little evidence of undesirable drug interactions between linagliptin and metformin , ARBs, statins and SGLT2 inhibitors [[5], [213]]. The increased risk of angioedema with combination
sitagliptin 5650 trial [[25]]. These adverse events were not detected in the TECOS trial that examined the CV profile of sitagliptin [[20]]. Whether the disparity between these clinical trials regarding HHF is related to the individual
sitagliptin 6377 insurance database in a Korean population reported no increased risk of HHF in DPP-4 inhibitor users ( sitagliptin , linagliptin, vildagliptin and saxagliptin) when compared with SU [[27]]. It is notable that among the
sitagliptin 6561 [[27]]. It is notable that among the DPP-4 inhibitors examined in the Korean study, patients treated with sitagliptin or linagliptin were at lower risk for HF compared to SU therapy. Moreover, risk for MI in patients with
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 4098 inhibitors with a focus on linagliptin.Cardiovascular protection as a treatment goal in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)Prior to 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process for new diabetes therapies
diabetes mellitus 17604 [[108], [113], [114]]. Endothelial dysfunction is caused by both insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus and is associated with both development of macrovascular and microvascular complications of T2DM [[115],
diabetes mellitus 18330 vasodilation [[29], [43], [84], [117]], is strongly associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus . In this regard, linagliptin has potent nitric oxide enhancing effects on vascular function [[34], [118],
hyperglycemia 17587 inflammatory responses [[108], [113], [114]]. Endothelial dysfunction is caused by both insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus and is associated with both development of macrovascular and microvascular complications
hyperglycemia 18313 mediated vasodilation [[29], [43], [84], [117]], is strongly associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. In this regard, linagliptin has potent nitric oxide enhancing effects on vascular
hyperglycemia 23474 control by GLP-1 incretin signaling contributes to CV health by suppressing deleterious effects of hyperglycemia directly and amelioration of CV injury by AGE/RAGE signaling. The mechanisms largely involve oxidative
hyperglycemia 40197 lack of adequate glycemic control necessitates the use of combinations of one or more additional anti- hyperglycemia agents to achieve target HbA1c. However, interest in the need for combination therapy as an initial
metabolic syndrome 22815 schematic depicts deleterious effects of excess nutrient consumption/obesity in the development of cardio metabolic syndrome and T2DM leading to vascular injury, stiffening and cardiovascular dysfunction. Circles with letters A
obesity 1317 metabolic disease on CV outcomes is still a major challenge and persists in proportion to the epidemics of obesity and diabetes. There is abundant pre-clinical and clinical evidence implicating the DPP-4-incretin axis
obesity 8091 and clinical studies have shown beneficial effects of linagliptin on CV dysfunction associated with obesity and diabetes (Fig. 1). These benefits include improvement in diastolic dysfunction [[34], [35]], atherosclerosis
obesity 9157 dysfunction (DD) is one of the early manifestations of CVD in insulin resistant conditions, such as obesity and T2DM and can be identified clinically by echocardiographic findings [[54]–[57]]. Moreover, DD
obesity 9969 have demonstrated CV protective effects of DPP-4 inhibition in models of genetic and dietary induced obesity , as well as pressure overload [[34], [67]–[69]]. We previously tested whether linagliptin reduces
obesity 10207 in diastolic and vascular endothelial dysfunction in two translationally relevant rodent models of obesity and insulin resistance, the Zucker Obese (ZO) rat [[34]] and the WD-fed mouse [[35], [42]]. In one study,
obesity 11546 states caused by overnutrition, as well as improve DD in the setting of established insulin resistance, obesity and T2DM when there is a pre-existing cardiac relaxation abnormality.Atherosclerosis, coronary artery
obesity 16162 Nonetheless, arterial stiffness can develop in younger individuals in the setting of insulin resistance, obesity and T2DM and evidence indicates that obese, insulin resistant and diabetic women are more prone to develop
obesity 22779 cardiovascular protection. The schematic depicts deleterious effects of excess nutrient consumption/ obesity in the development of cardiometabolic syndrome and T2DM leading to vascular injury, stiffening and cardiovascular
obesity 24559 in the WD-fed heart, provides novel insight into the effects of LGT in improving CV dysfunction in obesity cardiomyopathy. f Recent studies indicate that linagliptin prevents WD-induced deficiency of the anti-aging
obesity 24961 mechanisms of LGT may be contributing to the beneficial effects of LGT observed in pre-clinical models of obesity and diabetes, as well as, small clinical trials showing CV protection in stroke, myocardial infarction
obesity 28016 [[150]]. Th17 cells are another subset of CD4+ cells that secrete IL-17 which promotes CV injury in obesity , diabetes and hypertension [[155]]. CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) are a subpopulation of T-cells
obesity 29072 expressed in dendritic cell/macrophages contributes to potentiating inflammation of adipose tissue in obesity [[168]]. DPP-4 is also characterized as an adipokine and regulates insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue
obesity 30253 T-lymphocytes and macrophages [[150], [151], [156], [172]], thereby contributing to CV dysfunction in obesity and T2DM [[150], [173]]. In this regard, recent studies showed attenuation of Ang-2 induced cardiac
obesity 31162 atherosclerosis [[175], [176]]. Impairment of NO signaling is associated with most CVDs and is the hallmark of obesity and T2DM [[175]–[177]]. Therefore, strategies that modulate NO signaling by way of enhancing endogenous
obesity 32068 administration of linagliptin improves vascular function and NO signaling in both genetic and dietary models of obesity , in both the presence and absence of BP change [[34], [42]]. Thus, the preclinical evidence suggests
obesity 32975 indicates klotho deficiency may be a major contributor to not only, age-related aortic stiffening, but also obesity -associated aortic stiffness. In this regard, mice with a genetic deficiency in the klotho gene develop
type 2 diabetes mellitus 4091 inhibitors with a focus on linagliptin.Cardiovascular protection as a treatment goal in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)Prior to 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process for new diabetes therapies

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