Early Childhood Obesity Risk Factors: Socioeconomic Adversity, Family Dysfunction, Offspring Distress, and Junk Food Self-Medication.

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cortisol 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
obesity 38 endocrinologydiseases
childhood obesity 2 endocrinologydiseases

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cortisol 10908 important others or adequate resilience, such exposure will result in more or less chronic stress (elevated cortisol and ghrelin), chronic inflammation and insecurity and uncomfortable emotional states [[], [], [], [],
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
childhood obesity 5673 body of literature suggesting that the association between socioeconomic status and development of childhood obesity is growing in strength with an ever widening gap in obesity rates between low and high SES groups [[]••,
childhood obesity 5852 rates between low and high SES groups [[]••, []–[]]. In many developed countries, the rates of childhood obesity have stabilized or even been reduced in higher SES groups, whereas lower SES groups have generally seen
obesity 523 disturbances in the social environment, and how the consequences of such exposures can promote weight gain and obesity .Recent FindingsThis review will argue that socioeconomic adversity is a key upstream catalyst that sets
obesity 1177 social environment during infancy and early childhood appear to play a critical role in weight gain and obesity , through such mechanisms as insecurity, stress, and emotional turmoil, eventually leading to junk food
obesity 1958 individuals are already monumental, and are set to increase further as numbers affected and the duration of obesity exposure increase [[], []]. Indeed, the current and predicted future situation is nothing short of a
obesity 2723 shows that the ages between 0 and 5 years is a critical period in the development of overweight and obesity [[]•, [], []], and that childhood overweight and obesity is highly predictive of adult obesity [[],
obesity 2782 period in the development of overweight and obesity [[]•, [], []], and that childhood overweight and obesity is highly predictive of adult obesity [[], []•]. Early prevention efforts are therefore a clear priority
obesity 2820 and obesity [[]•, [], []], and that childhood overweight and obesity is highly predictive of adult obesity [[], []•]. Early prevention efforts are therefore a clear priority [[]], as is increased understanding
obesity 3039 infancy and early childhood risk factors [[], []].The idea of childhood adversity as an independent obesity risk factor is gaining attention, where two relatively recent meta-analyses both found clear increases
obesity 3159 is gaining attention, where two relatively recent meta-analyses both found clear increases in adult obesity risk in children exposed to abuse or maltreatment [[], []]. In addition, childhood adversity can also,
obesity 3813 neglect, a strong sign of a harsh social milieu (using data from teacher proxy report), and a subsequent obesity development [[]]. Moreover, it is already well established that childhood abuse likewise drastically
obesity 4106 problems, addiction, heart disease, stroke, several cancer forms, suicide, type 2 diabetes, and severe obesity [[]]. In summary, the evidence is mounting for a potent role of a harsh social environment during infancy
obesity 4259 for a potent role of a harsh social environment during infancy and early childhood in the etiology of obesity and several obesity comorbidities.While a previous review of this general topic explored the underlying
obesity 4279 harsh social environment during infancy and early childhood in the etiology of obesity and several obesity comorbidities.While a previous review of this general topic explored the underlying reasons behind the
obesity 4402 comorbidities.While a previous review of this general topic explored the underlying reasons behind the low SES and obesity association [[]], the current review will explore how upstream and midstream risk factors (childhood
obesity 4980 as a result of a harsh family environment during early childhood.Fig. 1Sequencing and interaction of obesity risk factors particularly relating to social disturbances during infancy and childhood, increasing the
obesity 5198 for junk food self-medication, resulting in a disruption of energy homeostasis, i.e., weight gain and obesity (here illustrated as an overflowing cup)Socioeconomic AdversityHaving a low socioeconomic status is
obesity 5364 AdversityHaving a low socioeconomic status is arguably one of the strongest risk factors for developing obesity (in countries that have made the transition to Western lifestyles) [[], [], []], and many other adverse
obesity 5683 literature suggesting that the association between socioeconomic status and development of childhood obesity is growing in strength with an ever widening gap in obesity rates between low and high SES groups [[]••,
obesity 5743 socioeconomic status and development of childhood obesity is growing in strength with an ever widening gap in obesity rates between low and high SES groups [[]••, []–[]]. In many developed countries, the rates of
obesity 5862 between low and high SES groups [[]••, []–[]]. In many developed countries, the rates of childhood obesity have stabilized or even been reduced in higher SES groups, whereas lower SES groups have generally seen
obesity 6245 expect the adverse influence of low SES to increase even further, particularly for countries where obesity is already well entrenched.There are several main consequences of low SES that are of particular relevance
obesity 6363 well entrenched.There are several main consequences of low SES that are of particular relevance to obesity : mental health (depression, anxiety), low self-esteem and self-worth, feeling disempowered, insecurity,
obesity 8017 under these circumstances are at much increased risk of various adverse health outcomes relevant to obesity development, such as mental health problems, addiction, and chronic inflammation [[], []]. Using a retrospective
obesity 8996 ischemic heart disease (2.2), stroke (2.4), smoking (2.2), poor self-rated health (2.2), and severe obesity (OR: 1.6), all statistically significant. The consistency and strength of these associations clearly
obesity 9543 protective mechanisms (resilience, coping skills, self-esteem, independence, etc.).Since the path to obesity usually starts during early childhood [[]••, []•], combined with the inverse association between
obesity 9662 starts during early childhood [[]••, []•], combined with the inverse association between SES and obesity , we need to understand more about the effects of family adversity on the offspring. Infants and children
obesity 11873 collected through parent proxy), being classified as addicted to food, and a positive association with obesity [[]].Children in disharmonious families are therefore at greater risk, compared to children who grew
obesity 14495 considered is that risk factors like low SES and emotional turmoil have existed long before the rise of obesity . However, drawing on the filling-of-the-cup metaphor (Fig. 1), the obesity cup was not spilling over
obesity 14570 long before the rise of obesity. However, drawing on the filling-of-the-cup metaphor (Fig. 1), the obesity cup was not spilling over until the introduction and growth of ultra-processed junk food in all its
obesity 14846 therefore reasonable to propose that low SES and emotional turmoil merely set the stage for weight gain and obesity , whereas the introduction of energy-dense junk food can be considered a direct cause of weight gain
obesity 14958 whereas the introduction of energy-dense junk food can be considered a direct cause of weight gain and obesity through its influence on energy homeostasis.Prevention of obesity has been tried, although given the
obesity 15024 a direct cause of weight gain and obesity through its influence on energy homeostasis.Prevention of obesity has been tried, although given the current toxicity of the external environment, combined with unresolved
obesity 15431 awareness, improved diet and increased physical activity [[]]. Given that there are many examples of obesity rates that have generally slowed or even reversed in high SES strata [[], []], one could argue that
obesity 15773 socioeconomic adversity, stress, and emotional turmoil.What remains a much greater challenge is to prevent obesity for low SES groups, particularly children in dysfunctional families. This is arguably where the need
obesity 16609 weight loss and regain [[]], suggesting the presence of a body weight set-point [[]] it is urgent that obesity treatment programs delve deeper into psychological and emotional aspects so that weight loss maintenance
obesity 16762 psychological and emotional aspects so that weight loss maintenance can be improved. Treatment outcomes for obesity could be improved by targeting the causes behind excessive eating, such as maladaptive junk food self-medication
obesity 17304 realize, indicating a need for more research in this promising area to find more definitive solutions to obesity . Obtaining data on infancy and early childhood social stressors is challenging, although not impossible,
obesity 17649 [[]–[]].ConclusionsInfancy and early childhood is a critical period in the development of overweight and obesity . There appears to be a highly toxic trio of risk factors in socioeconomic adversity (upstream), offspring
obesity 17976 emotional states (downstream). Over time, this results in energy homeostasis disruptions, weight gain, and obesity . The effectiveness of childhood prevention efforts may be improved by including more upstream and midstream

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