The Global Epidemic of the Metabolic Syndrome.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
obesity 33 endocrinologydiseases
polycystic ovary syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
childhood obesity 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperlipidemia 3 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 29 endocrinologydiseases
metformin 3 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 2640 syndrome had been the real scourge globally.Metabolic syndrome (MetS), also variously known as syndrome X, Insulin resistance, etc. in the literature, is really not a single disease but a constellation of cardiovascular
Insulin 4607 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologist (AACE) 2003 and the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR) used slightly different definitions but they are not as commonly used.Incidence and
metformin 21039 kidney disease [[]].Of the traditional approved drug, the most effective medicine in preventing MetS is metformin which is a unique anti-diabetic medicine whose mechanism of action is not fully understood yet but closely
metformin 27581 particularly warned about these side effects and taught some preventive measure early on. Preventive use of metformin and similar drugs may be useful in such patients and others who are at high risk for developing MetS.ConclusionThe
metformin 29756 and what does not.Increase investment in finding pharmaceutical assistance by developing drugs like metformin .Understand the biology even better. Recently, three publications in Nature medicine reported the biological
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
childhood obesity 6510 increased in most other countries. Of even greater concern was that the rate of increase was even higher in childhood obesity [[]].According to this survey, obesity is no longer a disease of affluence. The highest increase in
hyperlipidemia 407 as a pathologic condition characterized by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia . Though there is some variation in the definition by other health care organization, the differences
hyperlipidemia 7507 obese (MHO) individuals who have high level of insulin sensitivity and do not have hypertension and hyperlipidemia and other features of MetS. Epidemiological survey suggests that MHO may account for a significant percentage
hyperlipidemia 7908 35–70 years living in Lausanne, Switzerland—the prevalence of overweight, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia , diabetes, and microalbuminuria was 36.6, 15.7, 36.7, 34.2, 6.6, and 6.3%, respectively, and in this
metabolic syndrome 876 Western lifestyle across the globe, it has become now a truly global problem. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is often more in the urban population of some developing countries than in its Western counterparts.
metabolic syndrome 1710 change the lifestyle that is promoting it. There are certainly some elements in the causation of the metabolic syndrome that cannot be changed but many are amenable for corrections and curtailments. For example, better urban
metabolic syndrome 2523 mortality not only in the developed world but also in the underdeveloped countries. Among all these NCD, metabolic syndrome had been the real scourge globally.Metabolic syndrome (MetS), also variously known as syndrome X, Insulin
metabolic syndrome 4766 definitions but they are not as commonly used.Incidence and Prevalence of Metabolic SyndromeThe incidence of metabolic syndrome often parallels the incidence of obesity and incidence of type 2 diabetes (one of the outcome of MetS).
metabolic syndrome 5508 Prevalence of prediabetes or MetS was about three times more. So, about one third of US adults have metabolic syndrome [[]].Incidence of T2DM was even higher among certain ethnic groups—15% among American Indians but
metabolic syndrome 5721 Indians but lower among Chinese Americans − 4.3%. South Asian Americans had a very high prevalence of metabolic syndrome along with higher incidence of abdominal obesity [[]].In China, between 1992 and 2002, the prevalence
metabolic syndrome 8789 Africa and Middle East/North Africa (141 and 104%, respectively).We do not have similar global data on metabolic syndrome —which is harder to measure, but since MetS is about three times more common than diabetes, the global
metabolic syndrome 9062 quarter of the world population. In other words, over a billion people in the world are now affected with metabolic syndrome .The prevalence estimates vary, based on the criteria used for the definition of MetS. For example, a
metabolic syndrome 10933 efficient esterification of free fatty acids. Recently, adiponectin was found to be protective against the metabolic syndrome in a polycystic ovary syndrome mouse model [[]].The macrophages residing in the fat tissue are a major
metabolic syndrome 12085 multiple sclerosis.Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is another important factor in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome . In mice experiment, Shan et al. showed that high fat diet (HFD)-induced ER stress is dependent on inositol-requiring
metabolic syndrome 13972 perbiotic (oligofructose) normalized A. muciniphila abundance (increased by 100-fold) and corrected the metabolic syndrome in the obese mice. A. muciniphila administration increased the intestinal level of endocannabinoids
metabolic syndrome 14244 peptide secretion. This group now reported that use of membrane protein from A. muciniphila improves metabolic syndrome in mice [[], []].In addition to these, other biologic mechanisms of MetS, recently discovered, have
metabolic syndrome 14822 Recently, Cox et al reported a specially designed PPARdelta agonist which when used in mice reduced the metabolic syndrome [[]•].In all epidemiologic studies, prevalence of MetS increases with age. This is not surprising
metabolic syndrome 15020 This is not surprising since there are many commonalities in biochemical changes of aging process and metabolic syndrome /diabetes [[]].Genetics and Epigenetics of Obesity/MetSWhile there are some known genes associated with
metabolic syndrome 16069 strong association between intrauterine nutrition, patterns of postnatal nutrition, and growth and metabolic syndrome in adults. Mothers exposed to the Dutch famine of 1944/45 during the first two trimesters of the pregnancy
metabolic syndrome 17242 key components of energy expenditure and energy balance. But the benefit of exercise in preventing metabolic syndrome goes beyond the immediate benefit of caloric expenditure [[]]. With chronic exercise or increased PA,
metabolic syndrome 18773 evidence supporting a beneficial role of traditional Mediterranean diet in preventing diabetes and metabolic syndrome . In the Predimed study, it was also observed that just an ounce of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) given
metabolic syndrome 19188 luteolin, curcumin, cinnamon, rosemary, etc.A systemic review on the effects of dietary polyphenols on metabolic syndrome done recently showed that, at relatively high doses, many polyphenols favorably influence different
metabolic syndrome 19319 recently showed that, at relatively high doses, many polyphenols favorably influence different features of metabolic syndrome . Soy isoflavone, citrus products, hesperidin, and quercetin improved lipid metabolism, and cocoa supplement
metabolic syndrome 21283 exercise [[], []•, []]. There are many functional foods—mostly herbs that are effective in preventing metabolic syndrome to some extent.Carnosic acid is a major bioactive component in Rosemary extract and it is found to ameliorate
metabolic syndrome 21436 major bioactive component in Rosemary extract and it is found to ameliorate HFD-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice [[]]. Recently, Indian investigators showed that a single supplement intervention of 3 g cinnamon
metabolic syndrome 21634 intervention of 3 g cinnamon for 16 weeks resulted in significant improvements in all components of metabolic syndrome in a North Indian cohort [[]]. Another herbal product that has shown promise in combating MetS is Ashwagandha
metabolic syndrome 22259 insulin HOMA-IR [[]]. If these results are confirmed, galantamine may be a useful drug for alleviation of metabolic syndrome . Another herbal product Celastrol has shown promise in combating obesity and MetS in mice model [[]].
metabolic syndrome 22511 popular in some culture—is now showing up in Western supermarket because of its effect in preventing metabolic syndrome [[]].But knowledge of special diet and use of different herbs/functional foods can only go so far. To
metabolic syndrome 23451 [[]•].Producers of literatures on health should try to popularize the waist/hip ratio concept as better matrix of metabolic syndrome than BMI [[]]. Building a culture of physical fitness and healthy diet from cradle to the grave should
metabolic syndrome 24900 higher sugar content without change in total calorie content. Also, scapegoating fructose as causing metabolic syndrome without giving similar restriction on overall sugar/calorie consumption did not prevent the spread of
metabolic syndrome 27706 drugs may be useful in such patients and others who are at high risk for developing MetS.ConclusionThe metabolic syndrome is a complex pathophysiologic state that originates primarily from an imbalance of calorie intake and
metabolic syndrome 28352 done. As in the control of other epidemics, education of the population about the health hazard of the metabolic syndrome will be very important. Since metabolic syndrome is a complex medical diagnosis requiring blood tests,
metabolic syndrome 28401 education of the population about the health hazard of the metabolic syndrome will be very important. Since metabolic syndrome is a complex medical diagnosis requiring blood tests, simple anthropometric definition that can be easily
obesity 360 X, insulin resistance, etc., is defined by WHO as a pathologic condition characterized by abdominal obesity , insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Though there is some variation in the definition
obesity 4818 Prevalence of Metabolic SyndromeThe incidence of metabolic syndrome often parallels the incidence of obesity and incidence of type 2 diabetes (one of the outcome of MetS). According to NHNES data, during 1988–2010,
obesity 5781 Americans had a very high prevalence of metabolic syndrome along with higher incidence of abdominal obesity [[]].In China, between 1992 and 2002, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 14.6 to
obesity 5860 incidence of abdominal obesity [[]].In China, between 1992 and 2002, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 14.6 to 21.8%—based on WHO criterion. Using the Chinese obesity definition, with lower
obesity 5941 of overweight and obesity increased from 14.6 to 21.8%—based on WHO criterion. Using the Chinese obesity definition, with lower BMI cutoff, the increase was from 20 to 29%. The incidence of MetS increased
obesity 6244 increase, the prevalence of MetS in China in 2017 would be about 15.5% [[]].According to global survey of obesity in 195 countries, done in 2015, 604 million adults and 108 million children were obese. Since 1980,
obesity 6366 countries, done in 2015, 604 million adults and 108 million children were obese. Since 1980, prevalence of obesity doubled in 73 countries and increased in most other countries. Of even greater concern was that the
obesity 6520 other countries. Of even greater concern was that the rate of increase was even higher in childhood obesity [[]].According to this survey, obesity is no longer a disease of affluence. The highest increase in
obesity 6559 concern was that the rate of increase was even higher in childhood obesity [[]].According to this survey, obesity is no longer a disease of affluence. The highest increase in prevalence of obesity in young men (25–29 years)
obesity 6642 to this survey, obesity is no longer a disease of affluence. The highest increase in prevalence of obesity in young men (25–29 years) occurred in countries with low socio-economic index (SDI). In the last
obesity 7885 Caucasian subjects aged 35–70 years living in Lausanne, Switzerland—the prevalence of overweight, obesity , hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and microalbuminuria was 36.6, 15.7, 36.7, 34.2, 6.6, and 6.3%,
obesity 10434 first known adipocyte hormone leptin suppresses appetite and genetic absence of which causes massive obesity , other hormones like adiponectin have just the opposite effect [[]]. Adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity,
obesity 11353 of transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) also caused hepatic steatosis and obesity phenotype in a mice model [[]].In a recent study, Chug et al. reported that M1 macrophage retention
obesity 11816 fat tissue inhibit adipocyte UCP1 expression and beige adipocytes. The role of alphabeta1 integrin in obesity is particularly important since there is already an FDA-approved drug Natalizumab, a monoclonal antibody
obesity 12293 dependent on inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1alpha) activity. Deficiency of IRE1alpha prevented obesity , insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis induced by HFD. IRE1alpha also suppresses the M2 macrophages
obesity 13512 perinatal deiodinase 2 in hepatocytes greatly reduce the susceptibility to diet induced steatosis and obesity [[]].Gut microbiome has now become an important part of human biology in health and diseases. Healthy
obesity 14454 discovered, have potential therapeutic implication. Kopec et al. showed that thrombin promotes diet-induced obesity through fibrin-driven inflammation and that treatment with thrombin inhibitor drug dabigatran—already
obesity 14616 with thrombin inhibitor drug dabigatran—already in use for treatment of DVT—limited HFD-induced obesity and MetS [[]]. Maternal vitamin D supplementation in mice reduced MetS in the offspring [[]]. Recently,
obesity 15142 syndrome/diabetes [[]].Genetics and Epigenetics of Obesity/MetSWhile there are some known genes associated with obesity and MetS, the epidemic growth of the malady in a short period makes genetic predisposition a minor component.
obesity 15608 > 20% BMI variation [[]].However, epigenetics seems to have a bigger role in promoting MetS. Parenteral obesity may cause obesity in the offspring through epigenetic changes in the spermatozoa or oocytes or more
obesity 15626 [[]].However, epigenetics seems to have a bigger role in promoting MetS. Parenteral obesity may cause obesity in the offspring through epigenetic changes in the spermatozoa or oocytes or more commonly in utero
obesity 15873 mother or father who underwent bariatric surgery prior to conception of the children are less prone to obesity /MetS than children born before bariatric surgery [[]].Epidemiological studies have shown strong association
obesity 16277 of the pregnancy had babies with low birth weights (LBW), but these babies had higher incidence of obesity in adult life. LBW infants, who had rapid catch up growth as infant, had the highest risk of developing
obesity 16389 adult life. LBW infants, who had rapid catch up growth as infant, had the highest risk of developing obesity and MetS in adult life. A similar phenomenon was observed in China after the famine there in 1959–1961.
obesity 16653 via decreased DNA methylation of the imprinted IGF2 gene in the offspring and hypermethylation of two obesity -related genes—leptin and TNF. In rodent models of maternal under- or over-nutrition and newborn-specific
obesity 16999 homeostasis in the offspring [[]].This phenomenon is of particular concern and the high incidence of obesity and MetS in the newly developing countries may be explained by this mechanism.PreventionExercisePhysical
obesity 19696 [[]].Epidemiologic data show that consumption of foods high in capsaicin is associated with lower prevalence of obesity /MetS. Capsaicin present in hot pepper works on the TRPV1 and PPAR alpha receptors and reduces metabolic
obesity 20873 tissue and reduces body fat [[]]. A non-classic eicosanoid Lipoxin A4 also has been shown to attenuate obesity -induced adipose inflammation and associated liver and kidney disease [[]].Of the traditional approved
obesity 21424 extent.Carnosic acid is a major bioactive component in Rosemary extract and it is found to ameliorate HFD-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice [[]]. Recently, Indian investigators showed that a single supplement
obesity 22343 alleviation of metabolic syndrome. Another herbal product Celastrol has shown promise in combating obesity and MetS in mice model [[]]. Kefir—a dairy-based drink popular in some culture—is now showing up
obesity 23096 citizenry through discussion, debates/lectures, and effective use of mass media. Rather than viewing the obesity and leanness as an anthropometric and fashion issue, attention should be directed to the associated
obesity 24612 But laws need to be carefully crafted and be a part of total societal resolve to counter the problem obesity /MetS. Otherwise, it can be a dismal failure. One example is mandatory labeling of fat content in some
obesity 25021 without giving similar restriction on overall sugar/calorie consumption did not prevent the spread of obesity in the USA [[]•].Government can help create life-long health impact by ensuring good minimal perinatal
polycystic ovary syndrome 10957 free fatty acids. Recently, adiponectin was found to be protective against the metabolic syndrome in a polycystic ovary syndrome mouse model [[]].The macrophages residing in the fat tissue are a major player in energy metabolism.

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