Immunomodulatory Effect of Vitamin D and Its Potential Role in the Prevention and Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus-A Narrative Review

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
type 1 diabetes mellitus 6 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
calcitriol 8 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
cholecalciferol 9 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 8 endocrinologydiseases
hypoglycemia 1 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 30319 studies and randomized controlled trials established positive clinical effects in patients with T1DM. Insulin therapy supplemented with different forms of vitamin D—cholecalciferol, alfacalcidiol and calcitriol—improve
calcitriol 17780 liver to the kidneys and is converted into the biologically active metabolite 1,25(OH)2D, known as calcitriol [[87]]. In order to assess vitamin D status, determination of serum 25(OH)D, instead of 1,25(OH)2D,
calcitriol 18756 Favorable Immunomodulatory Effects of Calcitriol in Autoimmune DiseasesThe immunomodulatory effect of calcitriol is based on a genomic response and its ability to modify gene transcription. From the point of view
calcitriol 19950 memory B cells and production of immunoglobulins, including autoantibodies [[114],[115],[116]]. Further, calcitriol promotes CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th 2 and regulatory T (Treg) cells and reduces Th 1 and Th
calcitriol 20495 IL-17, IL-22, TNF-α and IFN-γ [[92],[95],[101],[106],[109],[110],[113]].The immunomodulatory effect of calcitriol described above, namely promoting the induction of immune tolerance and T cell anergy, impairing B cells
calcitriol 30419 Insulin therapy supplemented with different forms of vitamin D—cholecalciferol, alfacalcidiol and calcitriol —improve the preservation of residual pancreatic β-cells function in T1DM patients [[142],[143],[144],[145],[146]].
calcitriol 33506 recent-onset patients with T1DM. They demonstrated no protective effect of daily supplementation with 0.25 µg calcitriol for 18–24 months on pancreatic β-cell function [[154],[155]]. Perchard et al., in their 24-month
calcitriol 36243 studies are needed to establish appropriate vitamin D dosage and form (cholecalciferol, alfacalcidiol or calcitriol ) used as an adjuvant therapy with insulin treatment, adjusted for individual needs of diabetic patients
calcitriol 49308 moModest effect on residual pancreatic β-cells function and only temporarily reduction of insulin dose in calcitriol - supplemented patients.[[146]]RCT, DB, PC18 monthsN = 38 (19 + 19)Age: 13.5 ± 5.1 yDd: 2.2 ± 1.2 moI:
cholecalciferol 30384 clinical effects in patients with T1DM. Insulin therapy supplemented with different forms of vitamin D— cholecalciferol , alfacalcidiol and calcitriol—improve the preservation of residual pancreatic β-cells function in
cholecalciferol 31758 interventional studies conducted by Giri et al., Dehkordi et al. and Bogdanou et al. revealed that cholecalciferol adjuvant therapy improves glycemic control in T1DM patients. A significant decrease in HbA1C (glycated
cholecalciferol 31937 significant decrease in HbA1C (glycated hemoglobin) level occurred after 3 months of treatment with cholecalciferol at different doses [[143],[149],[150]]. This form of vitamin D also prevents micro- and macrovascular
cholecalciferol 32285 Interventional studies and randomised controlled trials proved that insulin therapy supplemented with cholecalciferol has a protective immunological effect in both patients with recent-onset T1DM as well as those with
cholecalciferol 32533 Gabbay et al. observed a significant increase in Treg cells in patients supplemented with 2000 IU of cholecalciferol daily for 12 months [[152]]. A similar effect was reported by Bogdanou et al., who administrated 4000
cholecalciferol 32657 for 12 months [[152]]. A similar effect was reported by Bogdanou et al., who administrated 4000 IU of cholecalciferol daily for 3 months to T1DM patients. An increased Treg cell percentage, however, was only observed in
cholecalciferol 33035 this vitamin D3 capacity in a randomised controlled trial [[153]]. After 12 months of daily 70 IU/kg cholecalciferol supplementation, the supplemented group had a significantly increased Treg cell suppressive capacity
cholecalciferol 33704 their 24-month interventional study that involved one-off supplementation of 100,000 or 160,000 IU of cholecalciferol , indicated no effect on glycemic control in children with T1DM [[156]]. Detailed information on the
cholecalciferol 36209 T1DM. Nevertheless, additional studies are needed to establish appropriate vitamin D dosage and form ( cholecalciferol , alfacalcidiol or calcitriol) used as an adjuvant therapy with insulin treatment, adjusted for individual
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 477 monika.bronkowska@upwr.edu.plPublication date (epub): 12/2018Publication date (collection): 1/2019AbstractType 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic autoimmune disease associated with degeneration of pancreatic β-cells that results in
diabetes mellitus 1437 appropriate supplementation with vitamin D reduces the risk of autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus , and alleviates disease symptoms in patients. The aim of this narrative review is to present the molecular
diabetes mellitus 1710 effect as well as review human clinical studies on the use of vitamin D as adjuvant therapy in type 1 diabetes mellitus .1. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus—A Global Public Health EmergencyType 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic
diabetes mellitus 1797 therapy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.1. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus—A Global Public Health EmergencyType 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterised by degeneration of pancreatic β-cells. This action
diabetes mellitus 38161 auto-antibodies[[113],[114],[115],[116],[117]]molecules-24-00053-t002_Table 2Table 2Vitamin D and type 1 diabetes mellitus : observational case-control studies.Place of StudyCases and Controls25(OH)D Level at DiagnosisVitamin
diabetes mellitus 40036 autoantibodies-negative.molecules-24-00053-t003_Table 3Table 3Vitamin D status and the risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus : prospective cohort follow-up studies.Place of StudyStudy GroupClinical FindingsConclusionsReferencesNorwayAge:
diabetes mellitus 45310 autoimmunit.molecules-24-00053-t004_Table 4Table 4Therapeutic role of vitamin D in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus : interventional studies.Treatment DurationStudy GroupSupplementation Dosage *Significant Changes in
diabetes mellitus 48214 decarboxylase.molecules-24-00053-t005_Table 5Table 5Therapeutic role of vitamin D in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus : randomized controlled trials (RCT).Study DesignStudy GroupsSupplementation Dosage *Significant Changes
hypoglycemia 45919 deviation↓ DIDSignificant improvement in glycemic variability, lower insulin needs and lower frequency of hypoglycemia .[[142]]3 monthsN = 73Age: 7.7 ± 4.4 y25(OH)D < 75 nmol/LDd: no dataCholecalciferol6000 IU/d (in vit.
type 1 diabetes mellitus 1430 demonstrated, appropriate supplementation with vitamin D reduces the risk of autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus , and alleviates disease symptoms in patients. The aim of this narrative review is to present the molecular
type 1 diabetes mellitus 1703 immunomodulatory effect as well as review human clinical studies on the use of vitamin D as adjuvant therapy in type 1 diabetes mellitus .1. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus—A Global Public Health EmergencyType 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic
type 1 diabetes mellitus 38154 including auto-antibodies[[113],[114],[115],[116],[117]]molecules-24-00053-t002_Table 2Table 2Vitamin D and type 1 diabetes mellitus : observational case-control studies.Place of StudyCases and Controls25(OH)D Level at DiagnosisVitamin
type 1 diabetes mellitus 40029 Aab−: autoantibodies-negative.molecules-24-00053-t003_Table 3Table 3Vitamin D status and the risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus : prospective cohort follow-up studies.Place of StudyStudy GroupClinical FindingsConclusionsReferencesNorwayAge:
type 1 diabetes mellitus 45303 IA—islet autoimmunit.molecules-24-00053-t004_Table 4Table 4Therapeutic role of vitamin D in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus : interventional studies.Treatment DurationStudy GroupSupplementation Dosage *Significant Changes in
type 1 diabetes mellitus 48207 decarboxylase.molecules-24-00053-t005_Table 5Table 5Therapeutic role of vitamin D in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus : randomized controlled trials (RCT).Study DesignStudy GroupsSupplementation Dosage *Significant Changes

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