Novel insights into the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and osteoporosis

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
Insulin 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
glucose intolerance 3 endocrinologydiseases
hyperparathyroidism 3 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 14 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 14 endocrinologydiseases
osteoporosis 31 endocrinologydiseases
secondary hyperparathyroidism 2 endocrinologydiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 35692 the complex interrelationship between the endocrine system (including leptin) and the fat metabolism. Insulin resistance and physical activityThe role of insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis
Insulin 35952 vivo studies indicate that insulin may also play an important role in the homeostasis of bone tissue. Insulin impacts the bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties by increasing collagen synthesis and also
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
glucose intolerance 29787 regulating energy metabolism and glucose tolerance. For example, it was shown in OC-deficient mice with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet that external supplementation with recombinant OC
glucose intolerance 30317 N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in the liver.[89] In addition, there are studies showing that OC improves glucose intolerance via production of adiponectin in adipose tissue and enhancement of insulin secretion.[90] In humans,
glucose intolerance 30469 adipose tissue and enhancement of insulin secretion.[90] In humans, serum OC levels correlate with glucose intolerance , insulin resistance, and obesity, as well as with metabolic syndrome.[91],[92] It was demonstrated by
hyperparathyroidism 11023 Although its insufficiency causes a decrease in luminal calcium absorption which, due to secondary hyperparathyroidism , leads to increased bone turnover followed by a decrease in bone mass, data regarding the role of vitamin
hyperparathyroidism 11462 supplementation of vitamin D and calcium in elderly patients with vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism prevented osteoporotic fractures.[23],[24] Low serum levels of vitamin D usually were linked with low
hyperparathyroidism 20863 and IL-17A, which leads to the induction of bone loss. Similarly, in postmenopausal osteoporosis and hyperparathyroidism , accelerated bone turnover is connected with increased secretion of TNF-α in parallel with IL-17A and
metabolic syndrome 5836 in the community is rising, in parallel with the epidemics of type 2 diabetes and obesity as well as metabolic syndrome .[9] A microscopic picture of NAFLD is characterized by significant lipid deposition in the hepatocytes
metabolic syndrome 13098 shown to decrease the progress of hepatic steatosis as well as the progress of other body indices of metabolic syndrome s.[32] This finding was also confirmed in other studies, which revealed that lifelong administration
metabolic syndrome 22435 may play an important role in both development and function of these cells and tissues.[62] Regarding metabolic syndrome s, an attempt at elucidation of the possible function of OPG in the cross talk between NAFLD and bone
metabolic syndrome 24015 NAFLD.[66] The fetuin-A gene is located on chromosomal 3q27, whose expression is found to be associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, which is confirmed by the fact that fetuin-A positively correlates with metabolic
metabolic syndrome 24127 syndrome and type 2 diabetes, which is confirmed by the fact that fetuin-A positively correlates with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance.[67],[68] A Chinese study by Cui et al showed that the serum levels of fetuin-A
metabolic syndrome 29199 osteoporosis.[85]–[87] Therefore, one could speculate that OPN could not only be a target for therapies against metabolic syndrome but also due to the fact that its overexpression can be present in NAFLD, it may be associated with
metabolic syndrome 30539 serum OC levels correlate with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and obesity, as well as with metabolic syndrome .[91],[92] It was demonstrated by Zhou et al that improvement of insulin resistance by OC is probably
metabolic syndrome 31239 significantly associated with the extent of hepatocyte ballooning, independent of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome .[94] This was also elaborated in pediatric patients, where Amin et al demonstrated that OC plays an
metabolic syndrome 33238 adiponectin/leptin ratio is therefore considered as a better inflammatory biomarker of inflammation in metabolic syndrome patients than these adipokines analyzed in isolation.[101] In obese humans, hyperleptinemia is associated
metabolic syndrome 36318 however, some uncertainty appeared because some studies have demonstrated that the relationship between metabolic syndrome and bone strength or BMD is negative in models adjusted for BMI.[118] Animal model studies demonstrated
metabolic syndrome 41676 processes including bone metabolism, there are no data regarding the possible contribution of KLα to metabolic syndrome or NAFLD alone.[135]–[137] Recently, a new form of the Klotho gene (and its protein products), β-Klotho
metabolic syndrome 42804 of them very costly, as is the case of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, as well as osteoporosis, and metabolic syndrome . NAFLD is expected to play most important role among age-related liver diseases in the setting of the
metabolic syndrome 44506 women.[144] Surprisingly, in other studies, such associations were not detected in men, and the presence of metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with a recent history of osteoporotic fracture in both middle-aged and
metabolic syndrome 44911 risk factors of osteoporosis, such as old age, menopause, or decreased BMI, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are also currently listed among factors associated with decreased BMD. NAFLD is the most common chronic
obesity 711 (NAFLD), and therefore, not surprisingly, the global prevalence of NAFLD increases in parallel with both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although deterioration of bone homeostasis in patients with NAFLD is commonly observed,
obesity 5817 incidence of NAFLD in the community is rising, in parallel with the epidemics of type 2 diabetes and obesity as well as metabolic syndrome.[9] A microscopic picture of NAFLD is characterized by significant lipid
obesity 8607 studies have shown that major tight junction proteins are downregulated in patients with NAFLD and obesity by itself is associated with increased intestinal permeability.[13]In recent epidemiological studies,
obesity 8797 epidemiological studies, NAFLD was shown to be connected with diseases that are usually not dependent on obesity , such as sarcopenia and osteoporosis.[10] It is noteworthy that these diseases are significantly linked
obesity 9054 tends to increase with age in men and women, independent of menopausal status. However, consequences of obesity , such as NAFLD, may also affect bone mineral acquisition in pediatric patients, which raises the hypothesis
obesity 27643 risk factor for the development of osteoporosis.[77]Because it became evident that osteoporosis and obesity are two related polygenic disorders, numerous studies have been conducted to clarify if a relationship
obesity 27762 related polygenic disorders, numerous studies have been conducted to clarify if a relationship between obesity and/or NAFLD and osteoporosis exists.[78]–[80] Because high levels of OPN RNA expression in adipose
obesity 28013 and humans were described, some authors have suggested that OPN may be the factor that directly links obesity -induced inflammation with metabolic disturbances.[81]–[83] Indeed, it was shown that, within the liver,
obesity 28902 injury.[80],[84] Taken together, the abovementioned experiments indicate that the OPN molecule links obesity -associated hepatic inflammation, NAFLD, and insulin resistance. However, on the contrary, it clearly
obesity 30514 secretion.[90] In humans, serum OC levels correlate with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and obesity , as well as with metabolic syndrome.[91],[92] It was demonstrated by Zhou et al that improvement of
obesity 31542 occurrence and progression. Moreover, it could be a useful marker for progression of NAFLD in children with obesity .[95] Most epidemiological studies suggest that a lower OC level is a risk factor for NAFLD.[96],[97]
obesity 33023 ambiguous.[98] Adiponectin deficiency is associated with a proinflammatory condition, as it is observed in obesity and other metabolic disorders. Increased leptin levels, however, act as a proinflammatory stimulus.
obesity 36163 by promoting osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.[117] Traditionally, it was believed that obesity has a protective effect against bone loss; however, some uncertainty appeared because some studies have
obesity 38509 that there is a chance, at least because there are available data describing its multiple effects on obesity , insulin resistance, and bone tissue, that irisin might be the lacking element that links bone and liver
osteoporosis 120 Interventions in AgingNovel insights into the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and osteoporosis Rafał FilipRadosław P RadzkiMarek Bieńko1Department of Gastroenterology with IBD Unit, Clinical Hospital
osteoporosis 2082 or vertebral fractures, is the major concern for early detection and treatment. It is estimated that osteoporosis affects 200 million women worldwide – approximately one-tenth of women aged 60 years, one-fifth of
osteoporosis 2394 Over the past two decades, the level of knowledge has significantly increased; however, most of the osteoporosis cases are underdiagnosed and undertreated in highly as well as in poorly developed countries. It is
osteoporosis 2648 osteoporotic hip fractures will occur in Asia by the year 2050.[2],[3]The commonly accepted definition of osteoporosis is: “A systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration
osteoporosis 3610 endocrine or autoimmune disorders, intake of steroids, and other drug therapies among others.[3]Although osteoporosis is considered to affect postmenopausal women and elderly, it may occur at any time during the course
osteoporosis 4007 pharmacological therapies. On the contrary, it is common, particularly in those with celiac disease, that osteoporosis may be the only noticeable symptom.The population of people with GI diseases is increasing, and their
osteoporosis 4491 primary disease. It has been identified that this population has an increased prevalence of low BMD, osteoporosis , and osteopenia.[4] For example, fracture risk for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs)
osteoporosis 4701 (IBDs) is increased by approximately 40% to 60%, and in this particular case, the main risk factors for osteoporosis and osteopenia in IBD patients include activity and severity of gut inflammation, perianal disease including
osteoporosis 5694 review will highlight the importance and newest developments on the relationship between NAFLD and osteoporosis .NAFLDThe incidence of NAFLD in the community is rising, in parallel with the epidemics of type 2 diabetes
osteoporosis 8829 shown to be connected with diseases that are usually not dependent on obesity, such as sarcopenia and osteoporosis .[10] It is noteworthy that these diseases are significantly linked to aging as well as to NAFLD, which
osteoporosis 15118 is of importance here is that low levels of IGF-1 coincide with both NAFLD and NASH as well as with osteoporosis , which also presents a clinical basis for considering IGF-1 as a potential anabolic agent for the treatment
osteoporosis 15242 presents a clinical basis for considering IGF-1 as a potential anabolic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis .The overall pleiotropic activity of IGF-1 is characterized by its involvement in bone tissue growth
osteoporosis 15564 activity appears, it is usually followed by disturbances in bone metabolism leading to the development of osteoporosis .[39],[40] Several studies have shown that low levels of IGF-1 are associated with a greater risk of
osteoporosis 16100 Moreover, IGF-1 was also considered to be useful as an early marker for the risk of low bone mass and osteoporosis in premenopausal and postmenopausal women indicated by measuring serum levels of IGF-1 in women around
osteoporosis 16686 clearly indicate the crucial role of GH/IGF-1 axis signaling in the pathogenesis of both NAFLD and osteoporosis , direct cross-talk linking among hepatocytes and bone cells has not been described to date. Most clinical
osteoporosis 17560 inflammatory processApart from the abovementioned abnormalities, another feature linking NAFLD with osteoporosis seems to be the chronic inflammatory process. Although pathogenic factors and triggering factors may
osteoporosis 17796 the systemic inflammation pathways and mediators involved are common for both NASH and inflammatory osteoporosis . Among the number of immunocompetent cells, hepatic stellate cells as well as dendritic cells have the
osteoporosis 18593 role in both mediating and inducing hepatocyte death as well as a classical inducer of inflammatory osteoporosis .TNF-αJarrar et al examined the role of adipokines in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and showed that TNF-α
osteoporosis 20846 ligand (RANKL) and IL-17A, which leads to the induction of bone loss. Similarly, in postmenopausal osteoporosis and hyperparathyroidism, accelerated bone turnover is connected with increased secretion of TNF-α in
osteoporosis 21095 activated T cells.[58] All the abovementioned processes indicate that inflammation links NAFLD with osteoporosis and emphasizes the role of TNF-α as well as other proinflammatory molecules like IL-6 and macrophage
osteoporosis 27290 resorption because CD44 expression is obligatory for osteoclasts activity.[75],[76] The role of OPN in osteoporosis has been thoroughly studied in both human and animal models, and it has been shown that OPN-deficient
osteoporosis 27447 and animal models, and it has been shown that OPN-deficient mice are resistant to ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis .[76] In postmenopausal women, elevated levels of OPN were shown to be an important risk factor for the
osteoporosis 27578 postmenopausal women, elevated levels of OPN were shown to be an important risk factor for the development of osteoporosis .[77]Because it became evident that osteoporosis and obesity are two related polygenic disorders, numerous
osteoporosis 27626 be an important risk factor for the development of osteoporosis.[77]Because it became evident that osteoporosis and obesity are two related polygenic disorders, numerous studies have been conducted to clarify if
osteoporosis 27787 numerous studies have been conducted to clarify if a relationship between obesity and/or NAFLD and osteoporosis exists.[78]–[80] Because high levels of OPN RNA expression in adipose tissue of obese insulin-resistant
osteoporosis 29085 the contrary, it clearly demonstrated that OPN-deficient mice are resistant to ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis .[85]–[87] Therefore, one could speculate that OPN could not only be a target for therapies against
osteoporosis 29366 can be present in NAFLD, it may be associated with less resistance to postmenopausal bone loss and osteoporosis .Osteocalcin (OC)Serum OC produced and released by osteoblasts in bone tissue is traditionally considered
osteoporosis 36964 correlated.[121]Physical activity is currently considered to be essential in the prevention of both osteoporosis and NAFLD. Various training studies have shown that exercise may reduce the risk of fragility fractures
osteoporosis 42786 comorbidities, many of them very costly, as is the case of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, as well as osteoporosis , and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is expected to play most important role among age-related liver diseases
osteoporosis 43102 including those associated with reduced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, in the elderly, both NAFLD and osteoporosis carry more substantial burden of complications, eg, NASH, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and increased
osteoporosis 44828 osteoporotic fracture need to be further elucidated.ConclusionApart from the traditional risk factors of osteoporosis , such as old age, menopause, or decreased BMI, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are also currently
secondary hyperparathyroidism 11013 described. Although its insufficiency causes a decrease in luminal calcium absorption which, due to secondary hyperparathyroidism , leads to increased bone turnover followed by a decrease in bone mass, data regarding the role of vitamin
secondary hyperparathyroidism 11452 combined supplementation of vitamin D and calcium in elderly patients with vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism prevented osteoporotic fractures.[23],[24] Low serum levels of vitamin D usually were linked with low

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