Bidirectional Relationship between Gastric Emptying and Plasma Glucose Control in Normoglycemic Individuals and Diabetic Patients

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hyperglycemia 9 endocrinologydiseases
hypoglycemia 12 endocrinologydiseases
complications of diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetes mellitus 6 endocrinologydiseases
diabetic neuropathy 1 endocrinologydiseases

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complications of diabetes mellitus 17372 oxidative stress and thus directly involved in the pathogenesis of chronic micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus [[46]]. Second, data published by Monnier et al., showing postprandial hyperglycemia to be an important
diabetes mellitus 1561 and hypoglycemia accelerates it, both limiting glycemic fluctuations. Disordered gastric emptying in diabetes mellitus is understood today as a complex pathophysiological condition, with both irreversible and reversible
diabetes mellitus 3101 sequence or content and incretin-based medications [[8]–[11]].The relation between the stomach and diabetes mellitus was alleged ever since ancient times. In the first century AD, Aretaeus of Cappadocia, whose reputation
diabetes mellitus 3428 therefore, strengthen the stomach by all means, which is the fountain of thirst” when speaking of diabetes mellitus treatment [[12]]. This hypothesis is obviously no longer valid in the 21st century, but the close bond
diabetes mellitus 13912 Kassander in 1958 [[40]]. Recent publications shed new light on our knowledge about this complication of diabetes mellitus . Delayed gastric emptying in diabetic patients may often be merely mild or moderate, and some persons
diabetes mellitus 17389 and thus directly involved in the pathogenesis of chronic micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus [[46]]. Second, data published by Monnier et al., showing postprandial hyperglycemia to be an important
diabetes mellitus 19678 hypoglycemia” (by delayed gastric emptying) proves to be an important concept in the management of diabetes mellitus [[53]].6. Effects of GLP-1 on Gastric EmptyingAs seen before, GLP-1 is an incretin hormone secreted
diabetic neuropathy 28786 liraglutide was found to have minor or no effects on gastric motility in the recent study on subjects with diabetic neuropathy [[84]]. Beyond its usual indications in type 2 diabetes therapy, a trial also using liraglutide, this
hyperglycemia 1431 feedback loop lowering postprandial serum glucose levels. Glycemic values also influence gastric emptying; hyperglycemia slows it down, and hypoglycemia accelerates it, both limiting glycemic fluctuations. Disordered gastric
hyperglycemia 1836 variability of time span and clinical features. While limited delays may be useful for reducing postprandial hyperglycemia s, severely hindered gastric emptying may be associated with higher glycemic variability and worsened
hyperglycemia 7472 nutrients to reach the intestine more rapidly, thus increasing postprandial glycemia; on the other hand, hyperglycemia delays stomach emptying, so the nutrients are propelled more slowly for absorption at the intestinal
hyperglycemia 15629 ever since 1956 [[44]]. Results of scintigraphic measurements published during the 90s showed that hyperglycemia delays gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes for both solids and liquids [[27]]. In diabetic
hyperglycemia 17229 glycemia. Postprandial serum levels of glucose are essential in diabetic patients. First, postprandial hyperglycemia is associated with increased oxidative stress and thus directly involved in the pathogenesis of chronic
hyperglycemia 17478 complications of diabetes mellitus [[46]]. Second, data published by Monnier et al., showing postprandial hyperglycemia to be an important constituent of glycemic control, particularly in patients with only slightly increased
hyperglycemia 18138 an authentic fasting state [[38]]. All these considerations highlight the importance of postprandial hyperglycemia .Several research teams found a direct relationship between the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial
hyperglycemia 19217 Parthasarathy et al. found delayed gastric emptying (even though associated with lesser postprandial hyperglycemia ) to paradoxically induce a tendency towards higher glycemic levels throughout the day at continuous
hyperglycemia 30225 levels. Contrary to this equilibrium state, higher rates of gastric emptying may induce postprandial hyperglycemia but also represent a compensatory mechanism intervening when hypoglycemia occurs, while slower gastric
hypoglycemia 1464 serum glucose levels. Glycemic values also influence gastric emptying; hyperglycemia slows it down, and hypoglycemia accelerates it, both limiting glycemic fluctuations. Disordered gastric emptying in diabetes mellitus
hypoglycemia 3792 hand, gastric emptying is influenced by glycemic control (as hyperglycemic values slow it down and hypoglycemia accelerates it), while on the other hand, gastric emptying may influence glycemic values, particularly
hypoglycemia 7951 healthy individuals even after repeated hypoglycemic episodes [[24]]. This is in contrast to other hypoglycemia -induced reactions, such as the clinical signs induced by adrenergic response, which are subdued by impaired
hypoglycemia 8137 response, which are subdued by impaired hormonal counterregulation and tend to fade out during recurrent hypoglycemia s.3. Assessment of Gastric EmptyingThe first measurement of gastric emptying dates back to the Middle
hypoglycemia 16036 glucose reaching the intestine in a short time, thus increasing glycemia even more. On the contrary, hypoglycemia would need more glucose entering the bloodstream as quickly as possible; therefore, a faster gastric
hypoglycemia 18713 unpredictability. Most authors found that gastric emptying is increased even after recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia , not only in healthy individuals [[24]] but also in diabetic patients [[50]]. On the contrary, Lysy
hypoglycemia 18910 contrary, Lysy et al. evaluated gastric emptying in insulin-treated diabetic persons with frequent hypoglycemia and found it to be delayed in most situations [[51]]; in fact, such individuals exhibit discrepancies
hypoglycemia 19493 time, a worsened glycemic control [[53]]. Hereupon, the evaluation of diabetic patients with frequent hypoglycemia should best include the assessment of gastric emptying; the “gastric hypoglycemia” (by delayed gastric
hypoglycemia 19577 patients with frequent hypoglycemia should best include the assessment of gastric emptying; the “gastric hypoglycemia ” (by delayed gastric emptying) proves to be an important concept in the management of diabetes mellitus
hypoglycemia 28189 basal insulin therapy by adding prandial insulins, as it offers advantages of both a lower risk for hypoglycemia and a reduced weight gain [[88], [89]].The effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists in diabetic patients with
hypoglycemia 29063 hypoglycemic clamp, found no effect of this GLP-1 receptor agonist on gastric emptying or on recovery from hypoglycemia . However, gastric emptying was measured in this study by the less-used method of an absorption test
hypoglycemia 30300 may induce postprandial hyperglycemia but also represent a compensatory mechanism intervening when hypoglycemia occurs, while slower gastric emptying limits postprandial glycemic excursions or even acts as compensator

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