Muscle and Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women: Role of Protein and Vitamin D Supplementation Combined with Exercise Training

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hypophosphatemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
osteoporosis 26 endocrinologydiseases
rickets 1 endocrinologydiseases
testosterone 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
calcitriol 7 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hypocalcaemia 1 endocrinologydiseases

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calcitriol 8511 [[25]]. The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, D (1,25(OH)2D) the active metabolite of vitamin D, also known as calcitriol , increases intestinal phosphate absorption enhancing the expression of type 2b sodium–phosphate co-transporter
calcitriol 8735 [[26],[27]]. Moreover, a deficiency of phosphate stimulates 1α-hydroxylase to convert vitamin D to calcitriol , which in turn stimulates phosphate absorption in the small intestine. Furthermore, calcitriol can also
calcitriol 8830 D to calcitriol, which in turn stimulates phosphate absorption in the small intestine. Furthermore, calcitriol can also induce the secretion of Fibroblast-like growth factor-23 by osteocytes in bone, which lead
calcitriol 26624 intake has also been shown to reduce bone resorption [[91]]; furthermore, protein can act modifying calcitriol and intestinal calcium absorption, increasing bone health [[92]]. As explained, protein intake above
calcitriol 35039 about 10–20% of the daily requirement of vitamin D. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), the precursor of calcitriol , is the major circulating form of vitamin D and is considered the best biomarker to assess the vitamin
calcitriol 35273 circulates bound to a specific plasma carrier protein, vitamin D binding protein, that also transports the calcitriol .The Institute of Medicine defines plasma concentration of 25(OH)D as adequate (25(OH)D concentrations
calcitriol 36379 combined effect of a decline in intestinal calcium absorption, in the ability of the kidney to synthesize calcitriol and an increase in its catabolism contributes to age-related bone loss [[123]]. In addition, with aging
testosterone 4510 gender-dependent alterations caused by the age-associated decrease of sex hormones [[10]]. Due to the decrease of testosterone in men and oestrogens in women, people of both genders experience sarcopenia. Although in general, men
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hypocalcaemia 37670 seem to play a role in muscle functionality, although most of them are attributed to the concomitant hypocalcaemia and hypophosphatemia [[128]]. Vitamin D plays a key role in regulating calcium-dependent functions of
hypophosphatemia 37688 in muscle functionality, although most of them are attributed to the concomitant hypocalcaemia and hypophosphatemia [[128]]. Vitamin D plays a key role in regulating calcium-dependent functions of muscle, such as contraction,
osteoporosis 1094 levels, which causes a progressive decrease of muscle mass and strength and bone density. Sarcopenia and osteoporosis often coexist in elderly people, with a prevalence of the latter in elderly women. The profound interaction
osteoporosis 1640 a large financial burden to health insurance systems. Hormonal replacement therapy is effective in osteoporosis prevention, but concerns have been raised with regard to its safety. On the whole, the increase in life
osteoporosis 1993 therapeutic strategies, alternative to hormonal replacement therapy, targeting both sarcopenia and osteoporosis progression. This review will examine the rationale and the effects of dietary protein, vitamin D and
osteoporosis 5405 studies are not conclusive [[14],[15]].Several studies highlighted an association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis , another age-related disease involving low bone mineral density (BMD), bone tissue frailty and risk
osteoporosis 6132 13–22% in men [[19]]. Osteoporotic fractures often require hospitalisation and long-term care; thus, osteoporosis represents a significant health challenge worldwide. The Women’s Health Initiative is a long-term
osteoporosis 6544 eleven clinically risk factors have been identified, providing new insights into the epidemiology of osteoporosis [[20]].Muscle-bone physiological interaction is increasingly reputed to be essential to prevent disease
osteoporosis 14838 of mechanisms is lacking [[10]]. Several studies demonstrated an association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis , another age-related disease characterized by low BMD leading to bone tissue frailty and risk of fractures
osteoporosis 17159 healthy skeletal muscles (i.e., through adequate exercise and nutrition) can help in counteracting osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.Oestrogen-based HRT has an important role in maintaining and enhancing muscle
osteoporosis 18458 long-term HRT for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, concluded that even though HRT is effective in osteoporosis prevention, it should be recommended as an option only when the risk of disease is very high and no
osteoporosis 19542 possibility of treatment before fractures occurrence today, a real prevention of both sarcopenia and osteoporosis and associated complications is possible. First of all, the fact is that muscle and bone health is a
osteoporosis 20470 ExerciseGiven the strict association between loss of muscle (namely, sarcopenia) and bone mass (namely, osteoporosis ) that accompany aging, physical activity and exercise represent effective preventive and therapeutic
osteoporosis 20678 therapeutic strategies able to slow down sarcopenia progression and prevent/delay the onset of and treat, osteoporosis . Indeed, exercise has beneficial effects on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance [[59],[60],[61]],
osteoporosis 21019 musculoskeletal injuries related to sarcopenia [[62],[63]]. Exercise has also been shown to delay the onset of osteoporosis [[64],[65],[66]] and to improve balance [[67]] and muscular fitness [[64],[65],[66],[68]] thus it is
osteoporosis 21219 [[64],[65],[66],[68]] thus it is generally regarded as the primary non-pharmacological treatment for the prevention of osteoporosis and fall-related fractures. Since menopause occurs approximately with the onset of sarcopenia, aging
osteoporosis 21444 non-physically active postmenopausal women should switch as soon as possible to an active lifestyle to prevent osteoporosis , while those already osteoporotic should exercise regularly to improve bone health and reduce the risk
osteoporosis 22265 serve as a valuable measure to prevent, slow, or reverse the loss of bone mass in individuals with osteoporosis . Although further studies are still needed to determine optimal exercise prescription parameters for
osteoporosis 22390 further studies are still needed to determine optimal exercise prescription parameters for preventing osteoporosis and fractures [[64],[65],[66]] a recent consensus on physical activity and exercise recommendations
osteoporosis 22519 [[64],[65],[66]] a recent consensus on physical activity and exercise recommendations for adults with osteoporosis [[71]] has stated the appropriateness of the current physical activity guidelines [[68],[72]] for those
osteoporosis 23406 Table 3 and Table 4).Literature put a strong emphasis on resistance training for all individuals with osteoporosis [[71]] and recommend moderate to high intensity RET to treat sarcopenia [[70]]. Therefore, since preventing
osteoporosis 36004 poorer outcomes for frailty, hip fracture and all-cause mortality [[29]]; furthermore, it may exacerbate osteoporosis in elderly or postmenopausal women by increasing the rate of bone turnover. Aging decreases the capacity
osteoporosis 37145 calcium intake during the period of childhood and adolescence can lead to a reduction in the risk of osteoporosis during old age and post menopause [[128]].Vitamin D has a pivotal role in the regulation and uptake
osteoporosis 40679 benefits of its supplementation. To this regard, European guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women recommends a daily intake of at least 1000 mg/day for calcium, 800 IU/day for
osteoporosis 41749 causes a sort of negative resonance between the two tissues when they are simultaneously affected by osteoporosis and sarcopenia, respectively. Indeed, the coexistence of this twin condition in ageing leads to an accelerated
osteoporosis 42046 utilization of health resources. Due to the age- and/or gender-associated prevalence of sarcopenia and osteoporosis , postmenopausal women are potentially more prone to such a joint clinical situation. Nutritional and
osteoporosis 42827 1).The medical and social relevance of strategies alternative to HRT targeting both sarcopenia and osteoporosis progression based on a female-specific rationale would be invaluable. To this regard, the development
osteoporosis 46938 fracture a consultation with an exercise specialist/therapist with training in exercise prescription for osteoporosis is highly recommended (in the absence of such consultation, it may be advisable to limit resistance
rickets 39152 differentiation [[134]]. Proximal myopathy (proximal weakness), characterizes patients with VDR-dependent rickets , an evidence arisen from studies in either older or younger populations [[128]]. Additionally, VDR-knockout

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