Food Parenting Practices among Parents with Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review

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obesity 127 endocrinologydiseases
childhood obesity 2 endocrinologydiseases
diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases

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childhood obesity 9859 Although the model does not acknowledge all the environmental factors associated with the development of childhood obesity [[54]], the model is appropriate for exploring the influences at the parental level, such as parental
childhood obesity 64680 al. (2017), USA [[83]]Cross-sectionalTo explore parental BMI and family behaviours associated with childhood obesity in a community sample. 143 parents≤25709–10 year oldsPSEASUnderweight and healthy-weight parents
diabetes mellitus 2604 [[3]], increasing the risk of developing adiposity-related conditions later in life including type II diabetes mellitus , cardiovascular diseases, sleep apnoea, problems with physical function, and some cancers [[4],[5],[6],[7]].
obesity 702 date (epub): 12/2018Publication date (collection): 12/2018AbstractGiven the links between parental obesity and eating psychopathology in their children, it is important to understand the mechanisms via which
obesity 1004 review research focusing on food-related parenting practices (FPPs) used by parents with overweight/ obesity . Web of Science, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched. Studies that included a measure of FPPs were considered
obesity 1312 were included. Single studies suggest differences between parents with healthy-weight vs. overweight/ obesity with respect to; food accessibility, food availability and modelling. Multiple studies suggest that
obesity 1863 control, encouragement and use of unstructured FPPs among parents with healthy-weight vs. overweight/ obesity . The findings of this review imply some differences between parents with overweight/obesity and healthy-weight
obesity 1955 overweight/obesity. The findings of this review imply some differences between parents with overweight/ obesity and healthy-weight and the use of some food-related parenting practices, however, they should be interpreted
obesity 2334 improvements to current measures of FPPs.1. IntroductionA child is ten to twelve times more likely to have obesity when they have two parents with obesity when compared to having two parents with healthy weight [[1],[2]].
obesity 2374 IntroductionA child is ten to twelve times more likely to have obesity when they have two parents with obesity when compared to having two parents with healthy weight [[1],[2]]. In addition, children are developing
obesity 2486 compared to having two parents with healthy weight [[1],[2]]. In addition, children are developing obesity earlier [[3]], increasing the risk of developing adiposity-related conditions later in life including
obesity 2752 sleep apnoea, problems with physical function, and some cancers [[4],[5],[6],[7]]. Not only is parental obesity linked to obesity in their children, it has also been implicated in the aetiology of eating disorders
obesity 2770 with physical function, and some cancers [[4],[5],[6],[7]]. Not only is parental obesity linked to obesity in their children, it has also been implicated in the aetiology of eating disorders (EDs), such as bulimia
obesity 3057 [[10]]. For example, patients with anorexia nervosa have cited that living with a family member with obesity was one of the causes of the development of their ED [[11]]. Both obesity and eating disorders present
obesity 3131 with a family member with obesity was one of the causes of the development of their ED [[11]]. Both obesity and eating disorders present in a significant proportion of young people. For instance, in 2016, 41
obesity 3398 globally [[12]]. In the UK, approximately one third of 2–15 year old children have overweight or obesity [[13],[14]]. ED prevalence is also high, approximately five percent of children aged thirteen to eighteen
obesity 3750 and 0.3%, 0.5%, and 2.0% among men [[9]]. BED is the most prevalent eating disorder associated with obesity among adults and adolescents [[9],[15]] where the transmission of disordered eating has been illustrated
obesity 3889 [[9],[15]] where the transmission of disordered eating has been illustrated in research. Parents with obesity , reporting binge-eating disorder (BED) behaviours, are significantly more likely to also report overeating,
obesity 4148 children than parents without BED behaviours [[16]]. Furthermore, children of mothers with overweight and obesity exhibit higher levels of emotional eating than children of healthy-weight mothers [[17]]. Research suggests
obesity 4575 parents act as gatekeepers and role models around food [[20],[21]]. One important approach to tackling obesity in childhood and prevent the development of disordered eating behaviours is to understand and positively
obesity 4919 been found to be one of the environmental factors associated with the development of overweight and obesity in childhood [[22]], and encompass the behaviours used by parents to influence their child’s behaviours,
obesity 9201 child/ren via the use of unhelpful FPPs and eating behaviours [[53]]. Furthermore, since the risk of obesity is greater for children with one or more parents with obesity, identifying the particular FPPs used
obesity 9263 [[53]]. Furthermore, since the risk of obesity is greater for children with one or more parents with obesity , identifying the particular FPPs used by parents with overweight/obesity could be helpful in informing
obesity 9336 with one or more parents with obesity, identifying the particular FPPs used by parents with overweight/ obesity could be helpful in informing the development of family based interventions.In order to understand the
obesity 9869 model does not acknowledge all the environmental factors associated with the development of childhood obesity [[54]], the model is appropriate for exploring the influences at the parental level, such as parental
obesity 10080 weight, on the use of FPPs. In summary, the FPPs currently being used by parents with overweight and obesity are yet to be identified despite parental BMI being associated with eating disorders and the strongest
obesity 10360 to systematically identify and review the types of parental FPPs used by parents with overweight and obesity (defined by a BMI ≥ 25.0 [[55]]). To aid cross-study comparisons, minimise conflicting findings and
obesity 16217 from one study, 19 of the 20 included studies used widely-accepted BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity (≥25). Lipowska and colleagues [[75]] used body-fat status measured by a body composition analyser
obesity 19695 weight and use of parental control. There is some evidence to suggest that mothers with overweight/ obesity have less control over their child’s intake and, therefore, their child has more control around their
obesity 19912 intake of food [[81]]. Specifically, Wardle and colleagues [[81]] found that mothers with overweight/ obesity reported significantly less control over their child’s food intake on the PFSQ when compared to mothers
obesity 20150 Similarly Haycraft and colleagues [[71]] found significantly higher reports of mothers with overweight/ obesity giving their child more control around eating, as assessed by the CFPQ, in comparison to mothers with
obesity 20405 cross-sectional studies reported no significant differences between parents with healthy-weight, overweight and obesity and CFQ control [[77]] and PSEAS control [[83]]. In one laboratory-based observational study, fathers
obesity 20669 struggle for control (efforts by parent or child to control feeding) than fathers with healthy-weight and obesity [[82]]. The authors suggested that fathers with overweight attempt to try and control feeding due to
obesity 21801 studies that reported no significant difference between parents with healthy-weight, overweight and obesity and the use of food to control negative emotions. Raaijmakers and colleagues [[78]] also reported no
obesity 22027 difference between use of food to control negative emotions and maternal healthy-weight, overweight, and obesity . However, this assessment was dichotomous, and consequently the frequency of the use of this FPP is
obesity 22203 frequency of the use of this FPP is unknown [[78]]. Another study reported that mothers with overweight/ obesity use food to soothe their child significantly less than mothers with healthy-weight [[72]]. Threats and
obesity 22539 identified appears to show no significant difference between parents with healthy-weight, overweight and obesity and the use of food-based threats and bribes in exchange for a favourable outcome (e.g., good behaviour
obesity 22837 colleagues [[81]] reported no significant differences between parents with healthy-weight, overweight, and obesity and PFSQ instrumental feeding. Haycraft and colleagues study also reported non-significant findings
obesity 22992 colleagues study also reported non-significant findings among maternal healthy-weight, overweight, and obesity using the CFPQ food as a reward subscale where their data was collected from a large sample of mothers
obesity 23140 where their data was collected from a large sample of mothers with healthy-weight, overweight, and obesity in a community setting [[71]]. Two further studies also concluded that maternal weight had no significant
obesity 23389 threats and bribes [[73],[78]]. In contrast, however, one study reported that the odds of mothers with obesity using CFPQ food as a reward was higher than compared to mothers with healthy-weight [[80]]. DisciplineOne
obesity 24048 intake [[91]]. There appears to be no difference between parents with healthy-weight, overweight, and obesity and pressuring a child to eat. No significant difference was found on the PFQ pushing the child to eat
obesity 24514 used significantly higher levels of CFQ pressure to eat when compared to parents with overweight and obesity , suggesting that parents with overweight/obesity use pressure to eat less [[85]]. Francis and colleagues
obesity 24563 to eat when compared to parents with overweight and obesity, suggesting that parents with overweight/ obesity use pressure to eat less [[85]]. Francis and colleagues [[69]] reported that pressure to eat by mothers
obesity 24691 less [[85]]. Francis and colleagues [[69]] reported that pressure to eat by mothers with overweight/ obesity was significantly predicted by daughters’ adiposity, and mothers’ concern for daughters’ weight.
obesity 25435 evidence suggests that there is no difference between parents with healthy-weight, overweight, and obesity and the use of restrictive FPPs. Five studies found no significant difference in CFQ restriction [[66],[69],[70],[74],[77]]
obesity 25618 difference in CFQ restriction [[66],[69],[70],[74],[77]] among mothers with healthy-weight, overweight, and obesity . Additionally, there was no significant difference between mothers with healthy-weight and overweight/obesity
obesity 25728 Additionally, there was no significant difference between mothers with healthy-weight and overweight/ obesity on CFPQ subscales: restriction for health and restriction for weight [[71]]. It has also been reported
obesity 25869 for health and restriction for weight [[71]]. It has also been reported that the odds of mothers with obesity using CFPQ restriction for health were lower compared to mothers of healthy-weight [[80]]. Contrary
obesity 26151 difference in CFQ restriction between mothers, caregivers and parents with healthy-weight and overweight/ obesity [[68],[85]]. Francis and colleagues [[69]] conducted a five-year longitudinal study that reported among
obesity 26287 colleagues [[69]] conducted a five-year longitudinal study that reported among mothers with overweight/ obesity , restriction could be significantly predicted by maternal concern for their daughters’ weight regardless
obesity 26905 reported that there was no significant difference between parents with healthy-weight, overweight and obesity , and use of coercive FPPs [[79]].3.3.2. StructureMeal and snack routinesMeal and snack routines are
obesity 27739 mealtimes. A significantly lower degree of structure during mealtimes was reported by mothers with obesity than mothers without obesity [[64]]. Only one study examined mealtime atmosphere which reported no significant
obesity 27768 lower degree of structure during mealtimes was reported by mothers with obesity than mothers without obesity [[64]]. Only one study examined mealtime atmosphere which reported no significant difference in dyadic
obesity 28306 interpret and respond to child cues) among mothers and fathers with healthy-weight, overweight and obesity [[82]]. More research is needed to examine meal and snack routines and parental BMI.MonitoringParental
obesity 28645 evidence identified appears to suggest no difference between parents with healthy-weight, overweight and obesity and monitoring. Four studies found no significant difference in CFQ monitoring and CFPQ monitoring [[66],[68],[71],[73]]
obesity 29286 healthy-weight parents monitor their child’s diet significantly more than parents with overweight and obesity [[83]], suggesting that parents with overweight and obesity monitor their child’s diet less. Food
obesity 29346 significantly more than parents with overweight and obesity [[83]], suggesting that parents with overweight and obesity monitor their child’s diet less. Food accessibilityFood accessibility involves how easy or difficult
obesity 29652 was assessed using the TFSSQ, and only one study used this measure [[67]]. Compared to mothers with obesity , mothers with healthy-weight and overweight recall previously allowing access to sweets and snack foods
obesity 29820 previously allowing access to sweets and snack foods significantly less [[67]], suggesting that mothers with obesity allow access to sweets and snack foods more frequently than mothers with healthy-weight/overweight.
obesity 30474 studies via the TFSSQ [[67]] and PSEAS [[83]]. There was no significant difference between mothers with obesity and without obesity regarding their implemented rules around snack foods (TFSSQ), however, this did
obesity 30494 [[67]] and PSEAS [[83]]. There was no significant difference between mothers with obesity and without obesity regarding their implemented rules around snack foods (TFSSQ), however, this did approach significance
obesity 31021 In this study there were no significant difference among parents with healthy-weight and overweight/ obesity and limit setting [[83]]. Food availabilityThe types of food available and unavailable in the home is
obesity 31438 there were significantly lower reports of encouraging balance and variety among mothers with overweight/ obesity in comparison to mothers with healthy-weight. Further, mothers with overweight/obesity reported having
obesity 31525 with overweight/obesity in comparison to mothers with healthy-weight. Further, mothers with overweight/ obesity reported having a significantly less healthy home food environment [[71]]. However, the sample in this
obesity 31856 sample (n = 437) explored maternal BMI and food modelling using the CFPQ [[71]]. Mothers with overweight/ obesity reported significantly less modelling of healthy eating in comparison to mothers with healthy-weight
obesity 32834 colleagues reported no significant difference in PFQ child control around eating between mothers with obesity and mothers without obesity [[64]]. However, Haycraft and colleagues reported that mothers with overweight
obesity 32862 significant difference in PFQ child control around eating between mothers with obesity and mothers without obesity [[64]]. However, Haycraft and colleagues reported that mothers with overweight and obesity gave their
obesity 32953 without obesity [[64]]. However, Haycraft and colleagues reported that mothers with overweight and obesity gave their child significantly more control around eating when compared to mothers with healthy-weight
obesity 33139 mothers with healthy-weight [[71]]. Russell and colleagues also reported that the odds of mothers with obesity allowing child control (CFPQ child control) is higher when compared to mothers with healthy-weight [[80]].
obesity 33516 fed the child themselves if they did not eat enough [[64]]. Only one study found that mothers with obesity used significantly more age-inappropriate feeding in comparison to mothers without obesity. However,
obesity 33607 mothers with obesity used significantly more age-inappropriate feeding in comparison to mothers without obesity . However, this difference was no longer significant after adjusting for family income [[64]]. One study
obesity 34030 autonomy. Roberts and colleagues concluded that in comparison to parents with healthy-weight, parents with obesity use significantly less structure FPPs (there was no significant difference between parents with healthy-weight
obesity 34305 involvementThere was no significant difference between mothers with healthy-weight, overweight, and obesity , and involving their child in planning and preparing meals and encouraging participation in food shopping.
obesity 35464 significant differences in the PSFQ encouragement among mothers with healthy-weight, overweight, and obesity . PraiseVaughn and colleagues define praise as a form of positive reinforcement where parents provide
obesity 36167 reported that there was no significant differences between parents with healthy-weight, overweight and obesity , and use of autonomy support FPPs [[79]].Nutrition educationTeaching about nutrition involves parents
obesity 36871 systematically identify the types of food-related parenting practices used by parents with overweight/ obesity in comparison to parents with healthy weight. This is important since extensive research indicates an
obesity 37286 eleven studies) suggesting that there is no difference among parents with healthy-weight, overweight and obesity in their use of food to control negative emotions, use of food-based threats and bribes, pressure to
obesity 38522 structure, there also appears to be no difference between parents with healthy-weight, overweight and obesity and: meal and snack routines, monitoring, or rules and limits [[64],[66],[67],[68],[71],[73],[82],[83]].
obesity 38752 available research indicates that there are significant differences between parents with overweight and obesity versus parents with healthy-weight with respect to food accessibility, food availability, and modelling
obesity 38932 food availability, and modelling [[67],[71]]. The research suggests that parents with overweight and obesity have a less healthy home food environment and model healthy eating less than parents with healthy-weight.
obesity 39164 light on the types of food environments children may be exposed to in families with overweight and obesity , which is one of the determinants of child weight [[98]]. Access and availability of healthy foods alongside
obesity 40722 indicated that there are no significant differences between parents with healthy-weight, overweight and obesity and child involvement and praise which is also based on single, unreplicated studies [[71],[83]]. Encouragement
obesity 44892 [[73]]. Two studies also reported there are no particular FPPs shared among mothers with overweight/ obesity [[64],[77]], however, this may have been due to mothers being recruited from the Special Supplemental
obesity 46421 the results of those studies that included less than 100 parents with healthy-weight, overweight and obesity suggesting that there is little or no difference in the use of FPPs between parents with healthy-weight,
obesity 46548 there is little or no difference in the use of FPPs between parents with healthy-weight, overweight or obesity may have been due to studies being insufficiently powered [[70],[74],[76],[83]], resulting in different
obesity 51369 feeding interactions (p = 0.001) (no longer true after adjusting for family income) among mothers with obesity vs. mothers without obesity. No significant differences on child control of feeding interactions (p
obesity 51397 0.001) (no longer true after adjusting for family income) among mothers with obesity vs. mothers without obesity . No significant differences on child control of feeding interactions (p = 0.070), using food to calm
obesity 51666 difficulty in child feeding, and pushing the child to eat more (p values not reported) among mothers with obesity vs. mothers without obesity. There is no specific feeding style associated with overweight young children.
obesity 51694 pushing the child to eat more (p values not reported) among mothers with obesity vs. mothers without obesity . There is no specific feeding style associated with overweight young children. ≥30146Cebeci and Guven
obesity 51879 children. ≥30146Cebeci and Guven (2014), Turkey [[66]]Cross-sectionalTo examine the influence of maternal obesity on FPPs with their children with obesity. 491 mothers18–24.9416–18.5 year oldsTurkish CFQOther than
obesity 51920 [[66]]Cross-sectionalTo examine the influence of maternal obesity on FPPs with their children with obesity . 491 mothers18–24.9416–18.5 year oldsTurkish CFQOther than perceived parent weight (p < 0.001),
obesity 52319 restriction (p = 0.234), pressure to eat (p = 0.072), and monitoring (p = 0.782)) among mothers with obesity vs. mothers without obesity. Maternal BMI does not appear to have a significant influence on FPPs. 25–29.9134≥30316Corsini
obesity 52347 pressure to eat (p = 0.072), and monitoring (p = 0.782)) among mothers with obesity vs. mothers without obesity . Maternal BMI does not appear to have a significant influence on FPPs. 25–29.9134≥30316Corsini et
obesity 52745 Restriction, Pressure to Eat and MonitoringSample 2 (pre-schoolers, past practices)Mothers without obesity allowed access to snack foods significantly less (p = 0.001), and implemented rules around snacking
obesity 52933 rules around snacking more (approaching statistical significance, p = 0.022) compared to mothers with obesity . No significant differences were found on any other constructs (p values not reported). The TSFFQ is
obesity 53557 0.006), and restriction (p = 0.023) between parents with healthy-weight vs. parents with overweight/ obesity . No significant differences in perceived responsibility (p = 0.861), perceived child weight (p = 0.844),
obesity 53789 = 0.233), and monitoring (p = 0.21) between parents with healthy-weight and parents with overweight/ obesity . Perceptions and attitudes of parents may independently be associated with overweight in children aged
obesity 55272 of hunger (p < 0.05). There is no specific feeding style associated with mothers with overweight and obesity . ≥2591Haycraft, Karasouli and Meyer (2017), UK [[71]]Cross-sectionalTo compare maternal FPPs by maternal
obesity 55648 variety (p = 0.029), environment (p = 0.021) and modelling (p < 0.001) among mothers with overweight/ obesity vs. mothers with healthy-weight. There were no significant differences between mothers with healthy-weight/overweight
obesity 55778 healthy-weight. There were no significant differences between mothers with healthy-weight/overweight and obesity on any other CFPQ subscales (involvement, monitoring, pressure to eat, restriction for health, restrictions
obesity 55981 restrictions for weight control, food as a reward, emotion regulation). Mothers with overweight and obesity engage in fewer healthy FPPs when compared to a healthy weight sample of mothers. ≥25188Jingxiong
obesity 56426 (including a 24-h dietary recall)In comparison to mothers with healthy-weight, mothers with overweight/ obesity worry significantly more about their child overeating (p = 0.004) and that their child would develop
obesity 56535 worry significantly more about their child overeating (p = 0.004) and that their child would develop obesity (p = 0.003). Significantly more mothers with overweight/obesity controlled feeding with a regular schedule
obesity 56599 and that their child would develop obesity (p = 0.003). Significantly more mothers with overweight/ obesity controlled feeding with a regular schedule in comparison to healthy-weight mothers (p = 0.017) and used
obesity 57404 mothers and expertsNo significant differences in FPPs between mothers with healthy weight and overweight/ obesity . Maternal weight (underweight/healthy weight/overweight/obesity) had no significant effect on the use
obesity 57468 with healthy weight and overweight/obesity. Maternal weight (underweight/healthy weight/overweight/ obesity ) had no significant effect on the use of FPPs (p = 0.60).Maternal weight does not influence the use
obesity 58079 feeding style restriction (p = 0.28) between mothers with healthy weight and mothers with overweight/ obesity . Mothers with overweight/obesity demonstrated significantly more concern about their own weight (p =
obesity 58112 0.28) between mothers with healthy weight and mothers with overweight/obesity. Mothers with overweight/ obesity demonstrated significantly more concern about their own weight (p = 0.05) than mothers with healthy
obesity 59547 significant difference found in prompting child to eat (p = 0.55) between mothers with and without obesity . Greater maternal prompting was predicted by a younger child age, a novel food, more bites of food taken
obesity 60207 and control (p = 0.62).There is no particular feeding style shared among mothers with overweight or obesity . 25–29.98630–39.997≥40.030Raaijmakers et al. (2014), The Netherlands [[78]]Cross-sectional To
obesity 60578 interviews with mothers and health promotion experts Using food as a reward (26.8% of mothers with obesity ) was reported more than use of food as a punishment (18.3% of mothers with obesity) and as a comfort
obesity 60661 of mothers with obesity) was reported more than use of food as a punishment (18.3% of mothers with obesity ) and as a comfort (16.9% of mothers with obesity) with their child. No significant association between
obesity 60710 use of food as a punishment (18.3% of mothers with obesity) and as a comfort (16.9% of mothers with obesity ) with their child. No significant association between emotional and instrumental child feeding practices
obesity 61383 questionsPost-hoc analysis revealed that in comparison to parents with healthy-weight and overweight, parents with obesity use significantly less structure FPPs. There was no significant difference between parents with healthy-weight
obesity 61617 There was no significant post-hoc differences between parents with healthy-weight, overweight, and obesity and autonomy promotion (irrespective of a significant main effect) and coercive control. When compared
obesity 62266 adjusted for receiving a nutrition intervention before the measurement of FPPs), the odds of mothers with obesity using CFPQ food as a reward and CFPQ child control were higher compared to mothers with healthy-weight
obesity 62463 healthy-weight (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.94, 1.36; OR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.71, 2.09).The odds of mothers with obesity using CFPQ restriction for health and pressure to eat were lower compared to mothers with healthy-weight
obesity 62939 al. (2001), UK [[81]]Cross-sectionalTo identify any differences in feeding styles among mothers with obesity and normal weight. Families with healthy-weight, over-weight and obesity≤251144–5 year oldsPFSQMothers
obesity 63012 styles among mothers with obesity and normal weight. Families with healthy-weight, over-weight and obesity ≤251144–5 year oldsPFSQMothers with obesity reported significantly less control over their children’s
obesity 63059 weight. Families with healthy-weight, over-weight and obesity≤251144–5 year oldsPFSQMothers with obesity reported significantly less control over their children’s eating (p = 0.01) than mothers with healthy-weight.
obesity 63455 instrumental, and prompting/encouragement to eat parental feeding styles among mothers with healthy-weight, and obesity . Mothers ≥28.5Fathers ≥25100Wendt et al. (2015), Germany [[82]]Laboratory observation To explore
obesity 64004 talk/distraction, struggle for control, and non-contingency among mothers with healthy-weight, overweight, and obesity . There were also no significant differences found among fathers with healthy-weight, overweight, and
obesity 64113 There were also no significant differences found among fathers with healthy-weight, overweight, and obesity apart from struggle for control. Fathers with overweight demonstrated a significantly higher amount
obesity 64282 demonstrated a significantly higher amount of struggle for control than fathers with healthy-weight and obesity (p = 0.003). Parents with healthy-weight, overweight, and obesity parents show the same ability to show
obesity 64348 than fathers with healthy-weight and obesity (p = 0.003). Parents with healthy-weight, overweight, and obesity parents show the same ability to show relatedness, interpret child cues, and affective engagement during
obesity 64690 (2017), USA [[83]]Cross-sectionalTo explore parental BMI and family behaviours associated with childhood obesity in a community sample. 143 parents≤25709–10 year oldsPSEASUnderweight and healthy-weight parents
obesity 64880 healthy-weight parents monitor their child’s diet significantly more than parents with overweight and obesity (p < 0.000). There were no significant differences among parental BMI and discipline (children are disciplined
obesity 65598 healthy-weight reported significantly higher levels of pressure to eat, compared to parents with overweight and obesity (p < 0.05). Parents with overweight/obesity reported significantly more food restriction compared to
obesity 65642 pressure to eat, compared to parents with overweight and obesity (p < 0.05). Parents with overweight/ obesity reported significantly more food restriction compared to parent with healthy-weight (p < 0.05). Use

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