Rethinking the Viability and Utility of Inhaled Insulin in Clinical Practice.

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Insulin 10 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hyperglycemia 3 endocrinologydiseases
hypoglycemia 10 endocrinologydiseases

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Insulin 83 Title: Journal of Diabetes ResearchRethinking the Viability and Utility of Inhaled Insulin in Clinical PracticeLutz HeinemannChristopher G. Parkin1Science & Co, Kehler Str. 24, 40468 Düsseldorf,
Insulin 6330 characteristics of normal prandial insulin secretion better than any SC therapy.2. Evolution of Inhaled Insulin Delivery of medications through the pulmonary system is used extensively in the treatment of respiratory
Insulin 8131 Afrezza Inhalation System is a drug/delivery device combination product consisting of Technosphere Insulin (human insulin) inhalation powder (TI) prefilled into single-use cartridges and the Afrezza inhaler.3.1.
Insulin 8257 inhalation powder (TI) prefilled into single-use cartridges and the Afrezza inhaler.3.1. Technosphere Insulin TI is a dry powder formulation composed of recombinant human insulin adsorbed onto Technosphere microparticles
Insulin 8985 soluble in water at neutral or basic pH, TI dissolves rapidly in the alveolar fluid of the deep lung. Insulin and FDKP are then rapidly absorbed into systemic circulation due to the combination of large surface
Insulin 24166 months of therapy and annually, even in the absence of pulmonary symptoms [[46]].7.2. TI Initiation in Insulin Naive PatientsIt is recommended that all individuals naïve to insulin therapy be started on 4 units
Insulin 24623 regular postprandial glucose monitoring (see above).7.3. Conversion from Subcutaneous Rapid-Acting Insulin Analogs to TIPD studies have shown that an appropriate conversion ratio is approximately 2.5 units TI
Insulin 25676 satisfactory glucose control.7.4. Determining Starting Dose for Patients Currently Using Subcutaneous Premixed Insulin For individuals currently using premixed insulin preparations, the following formula can be used: Divide
Insulin 27179 not tested in clinical trials.7.5. Determining Starting Dose for Patients Currently Using Prandial Insulin with/without Basal InsulinBecause these patients are already using insulin therapy, it is appropriate
Insulin 27206 trials.7.5. Determining Starting Dose for Patients Currently Using Prandial Insulin with/without Basal Insulin Because these patients are already using insulin therapy, it is appropriate to convert their current
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hyperglycemia 1805 insulin analogs is recommended as the first step when initiating insulin therapy even though postprandial hyperglycemia occurs early in disease progression due to the loss of early-phase insulin secretion [[2]]. Numerous
hyperglycemia 5420 prandial glucose control put individuals with insulin-treated diabetes at risk for both postprandial hyperglycemia and late postprandial hypoglycemia [[42], [44], [45]].In this review article, we discuss the unique
hyperglycemia 22157 patients (38%) versus placebo patients (19%) achieved an HbA1c ≤ 7.0% (p = 0.0005). Postprandial hyperglycemia was more effectively controlled with TI treatment. As to be expected, the incidence of all hypoglycemic
hypoglycemia 717 to insulin treatment include pain, inconvenience, and regimen complexity; however, a key driver is hypoglycemia . Improvements in the PK/PD characteristics of today's SC insulins provide more physiologic coverage
hypoglycemia 3722 diabetes, their attempts to achieve their glycemic targets are associated with frequent and/or severe hypoglycemia (SH) [[33]–[38]]. The combination of excessive SH and hypoglycemia unawareness makes fear of hypoglycemia
hypoglycemia 3791 associated with frequent and/or severe hypoglycemia (SH) [[33]–[38]]. The combination of excessive SH and hypoglycemia unawareness makes fear of hypoglycemia a key driver of suboptimal adherence [[33], [39]–[41]]. As
hypoglycemia 3830 hypoglycemia (SH) [[33]–[38]]. The combination of excessive SH and hypoglycemia unawareness makes fear of hypoglycemia a key driver of suboptimal adherence [[33], [39]–[41]]. As a result, many of these individuals are
hypoglycemia 5456 individuals with insulin-treated diabetes at risk for both postprandial hyperglycemia and late postprandial hypoglycemia [[42], [44], [45]].In this review article, we discuss the unique PK/PD properties of a novel inhaled
hypoglycemia 10221 conservative conversion factor used in a phase 3 study [[61]] that was intended to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia during the transition from SC insulin to TI. Because the nominal cartridge dose tends to overestimate
hypoglycemia 28166 and the long duration of SC insulin activity puts patients at increased risk of delayed postprandial hypoglycemia [[42], [44], [45]].Although the most recent SC insulin formulation Fiasp® insulin aspart injection
hypoglycemia 28505 [[68]]; however, this has not been evaluated in comparative studies. The risk for delayed postprandial hypoglycemia is not reduced relative to other rapid-acting insulin products, nor does Fiasp address adherence issues
hypoglycemia 28866 shown to improve glycemia in insulin-naïve T2D individuals [[65]], consistently demonstrating less hypoglycemia than SC insulin [[69]]. In T1D, TI produced comparable HbA1c reductions with less hypoglycemia, especially
hypoglycemia 28961 less hypoglycemia than SC insulin [[69]]. In T1D, TI produced comparable HbA1c reductions with less hypoglycemia , especially 2–5 hours after the meal [[61]]. In summary, treatment with TI offers a safe and efficacious

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