Overview on the Antihypertensive and Anti-Obesity Effects of Secondary Metabolites from Seaweeds

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captopril 8 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hyperinsulinemia 2 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 34 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
captopril 14423 activity, an aspect that is not mentioned by the authors. For our readers, we can suggest the use of captopril , a synthetic clinical drug widely used as antihypertensive, which is very efficient, although it displays
captopril 15300 3) (IC50 16.0 μM) acting as a non-competitive ACE I inhibitor, even though it is less active than captopril (IC50 0.77 μM) [[46]].The thermolysin hydrolysis of the Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) F.Weber & D.Mohr
captopril 18646 target applied in hypertension therapy, largely due to the success of the synthetic ACE I inhibitor captopril . However, the treatment with captopril and other ACE I inhibitors entails secondary effects, such as
captopril 18685 largely due to the success of the synthetic ACE I inhibitor captopril. However, the treatment with captopril and other ACE I inhibitors entails secondary effects, such as dry cough or angioneurotic oedema. Therefore,
captopril 23334 having cytotoxic effects, although its inhibitory capacity is not comparable with the one presented by captopril (IC50 0.025 ± 0.90 μM) [[67]]. We draw the reader’s attention to the fact that captopril is a clinical
captopril 23427 presented by captopril (IC50 0.025 ± 0.90 μM) [[67]]. We draw the reader’s attention to the fact that captopril is a clinical drug widely used as an antihypertensive. The low IC50 reported seems to be in accordance
captopril 24019 stronger (with an IC50 value of 12.74 ± 0.15 μM) than the compound 18, although not so active as captopril [[68]].The 6,6′-bieckol (20) (Figure 5) isolated from Ecklonia cava Kjellman, inhibits the ACE enzyme
captopril 26266 potency. D-Polymannuronic sulphate (21) displayed therapeutic potency (50 mg/kg) comparable to that of captopril (14 mg/kg). The results indicate that D-polymannuronic sulphate (21) promotes the elevation of NO contents
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hyperinsulinemia 2433 metabolic disorders such as hypertension, ischaemic stroke, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidaemia [[1]]. Hypertension, a high blood pressure condition called the “silent killer”
hyperinsulinemia 3063 that they have common pathophysiological mechanisms.Obesity augments sympathetic nerve traffic due to hyperinsulinemia and renal norepinephrine spillover, which increase renal tubular reabsorption of sodium and as a consequence
obesity 609 diana@ua.ptPublication date (epub): 7/2018Publication date (collection): 7/2018AbstractHypertension and obesity are two significant factors that contribute to the onset and exacerbation of a cascade of mechanisms
obesity 1445 sterols, isolated from brown, red and green macroalgae exhibit significant anti-hypertensive and anti- obesity properties. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the recent advances on bioactive pure
obesity 1684 different seaweed sources focusing on their potential use as drugs to treat or prevent hypertension and obesity . On the other hand, although it is obvious that macroalgae represent promising sources of antihypertensive
obesity 1808 hand, although it is obvious that macroalgae represent promising sources of antihypertensive and anti- obesity compounds, it is also clear that further efforts are required to fully understand their cellular mechanisms
obesity 2079 relationships and mainly to evaluate them in pre-clinical and clinical trials.1. IntroductionHypertension and obesity are key adverse health metrics that have disastrous health implications. Obesity, defined as excess
obesity 2926 decline and premature death [[2]]. Although there are many unanswered questions about the causes of obesity and hypertension, it seems that they have common pathophysiological mechanisms.Obesity augments sympathetic
obesity 3263 sodium and as a consequence active the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) [[3],[4]]. Besides that, in the obesity process there are increase endothelial dysfunction and vascular oxidative stress attributed in part
obesity 3794 multifactorial and complex, being related to differing concentrations of sodium and potassium in the body, obesity , insulin resistance, high alcohol intake, low calcium intake, stress and ageing diseases. The three
obesity 4248 systemic vascular resistance [[3],[6]].As a result of the mentioned pathophysiological mechanisms, obesity and hypertension are associated during their progression with the development of organ damage and consequent
obesity 4821 diseases [[2],[3],[4]]. Additionally, recent evidence suggests there are sex differences in mechanisms of obesity and hypertension [[7]]. Currently, the main targets for the treatment of hypertension are calcium channel
obesity 7441 Most macroalgae products described in the scientific literature as having antihypertensive and/or anti- obesity effects are the whole extract (aqueous or alcoholic), or fractions rich in a particular type of compound
obesity 8445 from macroalgae with pharmaceutical application in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and obesity implies the identification of pure compounds from seaweeds that exhibit such properties. In fact, seaweeds
obesity 8850 metabolites from brown, red and green macroalgae that exhibit significant anti-hypertensive and anti- obesity activities. These properties will certainly make them attractive to the pharmaceutical industry as lead
obesity 27434 other cardiovascular complications [[75],[76]]. There is evidence that seaweed ingestion can control obesity , for instance a mixture of brown seaweed and pomegranate seed, called xanthigen showed anti-obesity
obesity 27534 obesity, for instance a mixture of brown seaweed and pomegranate seed, called xanthigen showed anti- obesity activity through inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression and
obesity 27816 [[77]]. There is also evidence that their chemical components can become potential drugs to be used in obesity treatment [[27],[78],[79]]. Although some in vivo studies report the anti-obesity of several seaweeds,
obesity 27898 drugs to be used in obesity treatment [[27],[78],[79]]. Although some in vivo studies report the anti- obesity of several seaweeds, the whole alga [[80],[81]] or ethanolic extracts [[82]] were used in the evaluations,
obesity 28254 enzymatic-digested alginate oligomers, a polysaccharide fraction isolated from brown seaweeds, can induce anti- obesity effects [[83],[84]]; however, the chemical characterization of this alginate fraction is not reported.
obesity 28612 trying to identify the active principle and its mechanism of action.3.1. PhlorotanninsOne of the anti- obesity strategies targets the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation [[85],[86],[87]]. For example, Jung group’s
obesity 29655 C/EBPα and PPARγ expression and this action may explain the Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura effects on obesity [[88]].Phlorotannin 6,6′-bieckol (20) (Figure 5), was isolated from a brown seaweed customarily in
obesity 30321 transcription factors mRNA expression [[89]].3.2. SterolsAs a part of these authors continuous search for anti- obesity agents, fucosterol (25) (Figure 8) was evaluated for its potential to inhibit adipocyte differentiation
obesity 31194 activity contributes to emphasizing the Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura potential as a source of anti- obesity compounds.3.3. Indole DerivativesRecently, from another brown seaweed, the Sargassum thunbergii (Mertens
obesity 31861 signal pathway. These findings not only establish the Sargassum thunbergii (Mertens ex Roth) Kuntze anti- obesity effect but also suggest that indoles (26) and (27) can prevent obesity [[92]].3.4. CaretonoidsFucoxanthin
obesity 31932 (Mertens ex Roth) Kuntze anti-obesity effect but also suggest that indoles (26) and (27) can prevent obesity [[92]].3.4. CaretonoidsFucoxanthin (28) (Figure 9) is probably the most recognized secondary metabolite
obesity 32155 macroalgae, and its biological properties are well established [[93]]. Among all activities, the anti- obesity is almost certainly the most studied one [[94],[95]], in fact its anti-obesity effects were recently
obesity 32234 activities, the anti-obesity is almost certainly the most studied one [[94],[95]], in fact its anti- obesity effects were recently reviewed [[22],[95],[96]] and the authors stress the efficacy, detailed description
obesity 33440 for its delivery and naturally to establish that the system does not reduce the fucoxanthin (28) anti- obesity activity [[100]] or exhibit toxicity [[101]].As a summary, the mechanisms involved in the secondary
obesity 33568 exhibit toxicity [[101]].As a summary, the mechanisms involved in the secondary metabolites’ anti- obesity effect and how they affect the targets are shown in Table 2.4. ConclusionsBased on the above examples,
obesity 33786 obvious that pure secondary metabolites from seaweeds represent promising anti-hypertensive and anti- obesity agents with considerably high activities (IC50 values in the micromolar range), through the counteracting
obesity 34452 pharmacological potential needs to be confirmed.Fucoxanthin (28) seems to be the most studied and promising anti- obesity compound, while the 6,6′-bieckol (20) seems to be the most interesting phlorotannin since it is able
obesity 35460 nutraceutical or dietary supplement. However, given that many of the algae in which antihypertensive and anti- obesity compounds have already been identified are edible algae, it will be anticipated that, at an early stage,
obesity 35896 specific seaweed compounds and boost their value as a resource of potential antihypertensive and anti- obesity useful drugs.Figure 1Active peptide structures of the commercial seaweed base-products used to control
obesity 36950 differentiation.Figure 9The structures of fucoxanthin (28) fucoxanthinol (29) and amarouciaxanthin A (30) with anti- obesity effects.marinedrugs-16-00237-t001_Table 1Table 1Anti-hypertensive effect of the pure secondary metabolites
obesity 38885 available; 3 Only the IC50 values in µM are considered. marinedrugs-16-00237-t002_Table 2Table 2Anti- obesity effect of the pure secondary metabolites isolated from seaweeds.Secondary metabolite (No)Target and

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