Diabetes, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease: Clinical Insights and Vascular Mechanisms.

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
Liraglutide 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
acetylcysteine 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hyperglycemia 4 endocrinologydiseases
metformin 7 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
obesity 9 endocrinologydiseases
pioglitazone 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
Insulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetic retinopathy 2 endocrinologydiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 6758 dyslipidemia, and (unfortunately in many populations) cigarette smoking.[15], [16]Pathophysiological features Insulin resistance is detectable for several years before the onset of T2D. It is associated with obesity,
Liraglutide 30448 reduction in arterial stiffness. However, the time course of cardiovascular event reduction in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) trial suggests
acetylcysteine 24733 in experimental models and humans.[81], [82] Drugs such as glicazide and troglitazone, as well as N- acetylcysteine , decrease inflammatory markers in patients with diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy.[83]Epigenetics
metformin 23876 antidiabetic therapiesClassic approaches improving metabolic health, such as weight reduction and the use of metformin , statin drugs, pioglitazone, and insulin have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. Metformin
metformin 24084 Metformin reduces C-reactive protein levels by 13%. More recently, a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of metformin affecting M1/M2 polarization of macrophages has been shown to reduce obesity-associated low-grade inflammation,
metformin 24443 analogue 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, effects that appear stronger than those of metformin .[80] Recent studies have shown that salicylates have anti-inflammatory effects that involve inhibition
metformin 27922 pancreatic islets of Langerhans.[95]All current glucose-lowering guidelines suggest the early addition of metformin as first-line therapy. Unlike the sulphonylureas, which augment insulin secretion, metformin lowers
metformin 28015 addition of metformin as first-line therapy. Unlike the sulphonylureas, which augment insulin secretion, metformin lowers blood glucose levels principally by decreasing hepatic glucose production and promoting weight
metformin 28213 promoting weight reduction (with little effect on BP). Among the many proposed mechanisms of action of metformin is activation of AMPK: This is now thought to be a secondary effect of inhibition of the mitochondrial
metformin 28365 to be a secondary effect of inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.[96] Such effects of metformin may act directly (ie, independent of blood glucose lowering) on other tissues, including vascular endothelial
pioglitazone 23901 approaches improving metabolic health, such as weight reduction and the use of metformin, statin drugs, pioglitazone , and insulin have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. Metformin reduces C-reactive protein
pioglitazone 28778 cardiovascular benefit in the landmark UKPDS.[99]Other second-line agents used in glucose lowering include pioglitazone , a thiazolidinedione that directly promotes the differentiation of adipocytes within subcutaneous adipose
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 26423 or whether they are directly involved in the vasculopathy of diabetes remains unclear.Treatment of diabetes mellitus and its cardiovascular complicationsOnce T2D has been diagnosed, the aim of achieving glucose control
diabetic retinopathy 10101 which are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. In the United States, diabetic retinopathy affects about 28% of individuals with established T2D.[33] Worldwide it is responsible for 10,000 cases
diabetic retinopathy 24821 as well as N-acetylcysteine, decrease inflammatory markers in patients with diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy .[83]Epigenetics is another mechanism that may influence inflammation and immunometabolism in diabetes.[59]
hyperglycemia 4015 such as conduit vessels) and microvascular (involving small arteries and capillaries) disease. Chronic hyperglycemia and insulin resistance play an important role in the initiation of vascular complications of diabetes
hyperglycemia 6408 insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance.[14] As well as being the diagnostic hallmark of T2D, hyperglycemia is the principal determinant of microvascular complications of T2D and plays an important role in the
hyperglycemia 10694 has its own unique clinical and histologic features, but all are common with increasing duration of hyperglycemia and are driven by its downstream cellular effects, including polyol accumulation (resulting from saturation
hyperglycemia 16034 mechanism of glucotoxicity in diabetes, as evidenced by increased vascular ROS generation in response to hyperglycemia and accumulation of oxidation by-products of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.[27] NADPH oxidases
obesity 987 endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, arterial remodelling, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, and obesity . There is also substantial overlap in the cardiovascular complications of diabetes and hypertension
obesity 2014 vasoprotective therapeutic potential in diabetes.Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and HypertensionThe prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) continues to rise worldwide as lifestyles associated with low energy expenditure
obesity 2848 because aspects of the pathophysiology are shared by both conditions, particularly those related to obesity and insulin resistance. For example, in the San Antonio Heart Study, 85% of those with T2D had hypertension
obesity 6857 featuresInsulin resistance is detectable for several years before the onset of T2D. It is associated with obesity , particularly central obesity, but may be present in lean individuals with hypertension.[17] During
obesity 6887 detectable for several years before the onset of T2D. It is associated with obesity, particularly central obesity , but may be present in lean individuals with hypertension.[17] During calorie excess, adipocytes in
obesity 8427 stress pathways in vascular endothelial cells.[7]These proinflammatory and metabolic consequences of obesity and insulin resistance result in endothelial dysfunction, a key antecedent and modulator of atherosclerosis
obesity 22175 protective effect of anti-TNF therapies on lifetime risk of diabetes as well as insulin sensitivity and obesity .[74]A recent large proof of concept trial of anti-inflammatory therapy in patients after myocardial
obesity 24163 anti-inflammatory mechanism of metformin affecting M1/M2 polarization of macrophages has been shown to reduce obesity -associated low-grade inflammation, possibly because of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase
obesity 33585 damage.[114] Another example includes inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 by linagliptin, which reduces obesity -related insulin resistance and inflammation by regulating M1/M2 macrophage status.[115] Other therapies

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