Geographical Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome as Determined by Region and Race/Ethnicity

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
hypertriglyceridemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 4 endocrinologydiseases
polycystic ovary syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
testosterone 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
congenital adrenal hyperplasia 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperlipidemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperprolactinemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
metformin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
obesity 8 endocrinologydiseases
hyperandrogenism 8 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 1 endocrinologydiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
metformin 4500 long-term outcomes with early lifestyle interventions, as well as insulin sensitizing medication, such as metformin when indicated. In addition, screening for hyperlipidemia could lead to earlier lifestyle/medical intervention
testosterone 29562 only), BMI and waist circumference, insulin and glucose levels, and hormone analysis to test total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), which were used to calculate a free androgen index [[32]].
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
congenital adrenal hyperplasia 8450 underlying pathological condition that would explain hyperandrogenism or menstrual dysfunction, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia , thyroid dysfunction, hyperprolactinemia [[6],[15]]. Most recently, the 2018 International Guidelines
hyperandrogenism 6914 the individual must exhibit symptoms in two out of three categories, which include oligo/anovulation, hyperandrogenism , and the presence of polycystic ovaries [[6]]. In 2006 the AE-PCOS published criteria which placed an
hyperandrogenism 7045 presence of polycystic ovaries [[6]]. In 2006 the AE-PCOS published criteria which placed an emphasis on hyperandrogenism , with clinical or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism being required for diagnosis [[6],[12]].
hyperandrogenism 7104 published criteria which placed an emphasis on hyperandrogenism, with clinical or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism being required for diagnosis [[6],[12]]. The most recent input regarding the diagnostic criteria came
hyperandrogenism 8399 exclusion criteria that excludes anyone with an underlying pathological condition that would explain hyperandrogenism or menstrual dysfunction, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, thyroid dysfunction, hyperprolactinemia
hyperandrogenism 8736 caveats. An ultrasound is not needed for diagnosis if the patient has irregular menstrual cycles and hyperandrogenism is present, but it is still recommended for phenotyping. Adolescents should have more stringent guidelines
hyperandrogenism 12545 criteria at 19.9%. They assessed the phenotypic presentations and the most common subphenotype was hyperandrogenism with polycystic ovaries. They also assessed prevalence compared to obese women and non-obese (BMI <
hyperandrogenism 15282 definition of PCOS follows strict criteria for diagnosis [[22]], as does defining hirsutism [[23]] Measuring hyperandrogenism is difficult due to some tools lacking sensitivity. These additional challenges add to the complexity
hyperandrogenism 25950 could significantly skew their results. Unlike most studies this study failed to remove patients with hyperandrogenism connected with a related disorder. Furthermore, when compared to both non-Hispanic White women, Hispanic
hyperglycemia 26285 free androgen index (75.8% vs. 56.5%), abnormal homeostasis model assessment (52.3% vs. 38.4%), and hyperglycemia (14.8% vs. 6.5%). Interestingly, when contrasted with non-Hispanic black women, a cohort that normally
hyperlipidemia 4553 well as insulin sensitizing medication, such as metformin when indicated. In addition, screening for hyperlipidemia could lead to earlier lifestyle/medical intervention could likely help reduce one’s cardiovascular
hyperprolactinemia 8503 hyperandrogenism or menstrual dysfunction, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, thyroid dysfunction, hyperprolactinemia [[6],[15]]. Most recently, the 2018 International Guidelines for PCOS endorsed the Rotterdam criteria
hypertriglyceridemia 26527 prevalence than almost any other ethnic group, Hispanic women saw higher rates of metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemia [[45]].The differences between studies focused on Mexican women could imply that there is a difference
metabolic syndrome 5303 important for the field to reach the level of comprehension with PCOS to the extent that diabetes and metabolic syndrome established to improve the quality of life for these women [[10],[11]]. This review will seek to determine
metabolic syndrome 26504 has higher rates of prevalence than almost any other ethnic group, Hispanic women saw higher rates of metabolic syndrome and hypertriglyceridemia [[45]].The differences between studies focused on Mexican women could imply
metabolic syndrome 28738 al. study comparing nationwide US white and black women initially showed a much higher prevalence for metabolic syndrome in US black women with PCOS, however, when adjusted for age and body mass index the prevalence actually
metabolic syndrome 30985 have been done specifically on Greek Island populations, a 2016 study done by Kyrkou et al. shows that metabolic syndrome does have quite a high prevalence in Greek women with PCOS at 12.6%, which is seven times higher than
obesity 3125 known cause, although a genetic component and diet/lifestyle factors, such as insulin resistance and obesity have been identified [[7]]. Given the impact of insulin resistance and obesity on the development of
obesity 3204 insulin resistance and obesity have been identified [[7]]. Given the impact of insulin resistance and obesity on the development of PCOS, this could be related to the difference in prevalence in across different
obesity 3357 related to the difference in prevalence in across different races/ethnicities with higher incidence of obesity and diabetes. Due to the heterogeneous and multifactorial nature of PCOS symptoms there is a lack of
obesity 4055 makes the patient aware of possible fertility concerns, dysfunctional bleeding, endometrial cancer, obesity , diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and theoretical increased risk of cardiovascular disease [[7]].
obesity 10882 were diagnosed using the NIH criteria. Under the Rotterdam criteria there was a greater frequency of obesity , insulin sensitivity, and the diagnosis of PCOS itself [[8]]. This study used appropriate groups and
obesity 19990 however this population was primarily Caucasian. It is said to be comparable to the US [[28]] in terms of obesity rates and waist circumference, but the rates of Australians were still lower than in the Americans [[29],[30],[31],[32]]
obesity 23610 women with polycystic ovaries in the US is approximately 21% [[41]]. Although Japan has lower rates of obesity and hirsutism, the Japanese still have comparable rates of androgen excess and insulin resistance to
obesity 29982 high-fat and nutritionally poor diet. This population has especially high rates of hirsutism, central obesity , and type 2 diabetes compared to Caucasians [[32]]. These symptoms are thought to have an impact on
polycystic ovary syndrome 1593 comparability across studies. There have been very few studies that have examined the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome across the United States. Based on the National Institutes of Health (NIH)’s diagnostic criteria,

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