Glycosylation in the Thyroid Gland: Vital Aspects of Glycoprotein Function in Thyrocyte Physiology and Thyroid Disorders

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
congenital hypothyroidism 1 endocrinologydiseases
goiter 2 endocrinologydiseases
hyperthyroidism 4 endocrinologydiseases
thyroglobulin 5 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hypothyroidism 9 endocrinologydiseases
propylthiouracil 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
thyroid carcinoma 7 endocrinologydiseases
thyroiditis 1 endocrinologydiseases
thyrotoxicosis 1 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
propylthiouracil 51310 TSH stimulation in the RTL-5 hormone-responsive rat thyroid cell line [[140]]. Treatment of rats with propylthiouracil , used in therapy of hyperthyroidism to enhance endogenous TSH, increased the levels of mannosyltransferases
thyroglobulin 2351 The characteristic molecular system absorbs, concentrates, oxidizes and then incorporates iodine into thyroglobulin (Tg) in thyroid follicles [[2]]. Tg is the protein backbone for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which
thyroglobulin 22177 stimulatory and blocking antibodies from human serum [[64]]. Moreover, the α subunit of TSHR, such as thyroglobulin described below, can bind to the mannose receptor (ManR) [[65]] on the surface of antigen-presenting
thyroglobulin 26676 serum-free medium has a characteristic glycosylation pattern, different from that of thyroid gland thyroglobulin . Tg produced in vitro contained heterogeneous complex-type N-glycans and lower content of high-mannose
thyroglobulin 28389 receptor and its release to the lumen of the thyroid follicle [[70]]. The lectin interaction of ASGPR with thyroglobulin , regulated by the level of Tg sialylation, is crucial to Tg transport through the thyrocyte membrane.2.4.
thyroglobulin 56508 PD-TSH binds to TSHR in the cell membrane of thyrocytes and induces signal transduction, resulting in thyroglobulin (Tg) synthesis [[31]]. Thyroperoxidase (TPO) catalyzes iodine oxidation, iodination of Tg, and production
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
congenital hypothyroidism 49798 thyroid nodules, and nontumorous tissue groups [[135]].Glycosylation changes have also been observed in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) not connected with HT [[53]]. Sialylation of glycans attached to both TSH subunits was up-regulated
goiter 47230 glycosylation [[128]].Grave’s disease, the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, is characterized by goiter and ophthalmopathy, and is also associated with thyrotoxicosis [[129]]. Autoimmune processes are triggered
goiter 51801 affected iodotyrosine coupling and transport of Tg into the follicular lumen in a patient with congenital goiter and hypothyroidism [[141]]. Due to the involvement of all the above enzymes in the synthesis of glycans
hyperthyroidism 45406 adhesion proteins [[21]].3.2. Glycosylation in Hypothyroidism and HyperthyroidismHypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are mainly the results of pathological processes within the thyroid gland and are among the primary
hyperthyroidism 47193 genetic variance between AITD and glycosylation [[128]].Grave’s disease, the most common cause of hyperthyroidism , is characterized by goiter and ophthalmopathy, and is also associated with thyrotoxicosis [[129]].
hyperthyroidism 48334 humans, leading to development of GD [[129]]. This hypothesis was verified in the BALB/c murine model of hyperthyroidism . Mouse TSHR also has one N-linked glycan less than the human receptor. Mice were immunized with an adenovirus
hyperthyroidism 51347 hormone-responsive rat thyroid cell line [[140]]. Treatment of rats with propylthiouracil, used in therapy of hyperthyroidism to enhance endogenous TSH, increased the levels of mannosyltransferases and galactosyltransferases in
hypothyroidism 16230 (macro-TSH, a complex of TSH and anti-TSH immunoglobulin, 150 kDa) forms were found in sera of patients with hypothyroidism . After peptide N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) digestion, the bands of both variants showed the same SDS-PAGE
hypothyroidism 33142 with developed countries showing the highest frequency of cases [[90]]. The occurrence of autoimmune hypothyroidism is significantly higher in women than in men [[91],[92]]. The most recent American Cancer Society statistics
hypothyroidism 49809 nodules, and nontumorous tissue groups [[135]].Glycosylation changes have also been observed in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) not connected with HT [[53]]. Sialylation of glycans attached to both TSH subunits was up-regulated
hypothyroidism 50412 nodules (AFTN), connected mostly with constitutively activated mutated TSHR, are a common cause of hypothyroidism . A comparative analysis of gene expression in AFTN and normal surrounding tissue indicated 20–40 genes
hypothyroidism 51812 iodotyrosine coupling and transport of Tg into the follicular lumen in a patient with congenital goiter and hypothyroidism [[141]]. Due to the involvement of all the above enzymes in the synthesis of glycans attached to Tg,
hypothyroidism 52408 An increase of TSH glycoforms with terminal Gal and SA was observed in individuals with subclinical hypothyroidism and overt primary hypothyroidism. Serum TSH was elevated after administration of pharmacological doses
hypothyroidism 52441 with terminal Gal and SA was observed in individuals with subclinical hypothyroidism and overt primary hypothyroidism . Serum TSH was elevated after administration of pharmacological doses of thyrotropin-releasing hormone
hypothyroidism 52612 pharmacological doses of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) to patients with subclinical and overt primary hypothyroidism , but TRH treatment did not influence the amount of sialylated or terminally galactosylated TSH isoforms
hypothyroidism 53203 T3-binding domain of TRβ1 reduces the interaction of thyroid hormone with the receptor and leads to hypothyroidism [[9]].Thyroid hormones T3 and T4 regulate metabolism, growth and development by controlling gene expression.
thyroid carcinoma 34106 derived from follicular thyroid cells are classified as well-differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma s, as well as poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)
thyroid carcinoma 34174 well-differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, as well as poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma s. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer, with 80–85% frequency;
thyroid carcinoma 34204 follicular thyroid carcinomas, as well as poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer, with 80–85% frequency; follicular thyroid cancer
thyroid carcinoma 37224 volume in xenograft mouse [[104]].Lectin histochemical staining of SA in tissue specimens of four human thyroid carcinoma s showed that cancer transformation of thyroid follicular epithelial cells to PTC and FTC is associated
thyroid carcinoma 42120 protein and increased its prometastatic activity [[117]].The diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSPTC) is characterized by abundant lymphocytic infiltrates. The mechanism of lymphocytic infiltration
thyroid carcinoma 44618 been found to undergo changes during the progression of different cancers [[121],[122]], among them thyroid carcinoma s [[21],[123]]. Modified glycosylation of serum IgG seems to be a good glycomarker of many diseases,
thyroid carcinoma 45264 G2S [[123]]. Many types of membrane or secreted glycoproteins have been shown to be up-regulated in thyroid carcinoma s, among them mucins and adhesion proteins [[21]].3.2. Glycosylation in Hypothyroidism and HyperthyroidismHypothyroidism
thyroiditis 45744 causes. The most common thyroid dysfunctions are caused by thyroid autoimmunity, including Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and Graves’ disease (GD) [[124]]. AITD is characterized by immunogenicity of the major thyroid
thyrotoxicosis 47285 cause of hyperthyroidism, is characterized by goiter and ophthalmopathy, and is also associated with thyrotoxicosis [[129]]. Autoimmune processes are triggered by the stimulating autoantibody against TSHR, which mimics

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