Vitamin K deficiency: the linking pin between COPD and cardiovascular diseases?

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
calcinosis 1 endocrinologydiseases
calcium chloride 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
osteoporosis 1 endocrinologydiseases
vascular calcification 15 endocrinologydiseases
vitamin K deficiency 11 endocrinologydiseases

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calcium chloride 10919 calcification and degradation are two pathogenic mechanisms that stimulate each other [[19]]. Administration of calcium chloride (CaCl2) in rat aortas induced both elastin calcification and degradation [[19]]. Inhibiting elastin
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
calcinosis 17964 [[42]], which is for a large part caused by the pathophysiological processes elastinolysis and elasto calcinosis [[19]]. COPD patients have increased stiffening of their arteries compared to controls [[43]]. Whether
osteoporosis 12756 well-characterized cohorts have to reveal whether vitamin K deficiency is indeed the linking pin between osteoporosis and vascular calcifications in COPD.Vitamin K supplementationPreliminary data of our group suggest that
vascular calcification 987 calcification. No or insufficient MGP activation by the use of VKAs is associated with a rapid progression of vascular calcification , which may enhance the risk for overt cardiovascular disease. Vitamin K consumption, on the other hand,
vascular calcification 1196 on the other hand, seems to have a protective effect on the mineralization of arteries. Furthermore, vascular calcification mutually relates to elastin degradation, which is accelerated in patients with COPD associating with
vascular calcification 1753 studies are needed to explore if vitamin K supplementation is able to reduce elastin degradation and vascular calcification in COPD patients.BackgroundCardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive
vascular calcification 3479 proteins from enzymatic degradation [[11]]. MGP knock-out mice die within two months after birth due to vascular calcification s leading to large blood vessel rupture, illustrating the importance of MGP [[10]]. Although research
vascular calcification 9225 similar mechanism has also been demonstrated in humans in whom the use of VKAs is associated with more vascular calcification s [[23], [24]]. This is of course highly undesirable in calcification-prone COPD patients.Elastin degradation
vascular calcification 10769 were also associated with the CAC score, illustrating the close relationship between elastinolysis and vascular calcification [[28]].Elastin calcification and degradation are two pathogenic mechanisms that stimulate each other
vascular calcification 11938 pathomechanistic explanation for the observed link between COPD and cardiovascular diseases.Osteoporosis and vascular calcification Remarkably, demineralization of bone tissue and mineralization of arteries often coexist in individual
vascular calcification 12773 cohorts have to reveal whether vitamin K deficiency is indeed the linking pin between osteoporosis and vascular calcification s in COPD.Vitamin K supplementationPreliminary data of our group suggest that vitamin K status is reduced
vascular calcification 15212 compromised than the activation of coagulation factors [[38]], which might have deleterious effects on vascular calcification s, elastin degradation and survival in patients with COPD.Fig. 3Triage theory. The triage theory implies
vascular calcification 16085 cardiovascular diseasesWhether vitamin K2 alone or both vitamin K1 and K2 have beneficial effects on vascular calcification remains partially elusive. Data from observational studies suggest that vitamin K2 rather than vitamin
vascular calcification 16951 suggestion of a protective effect of vitamin K2 consumption and an indifferent effect of vitamin K1 on vascular calcification was corroborated in the observational Prospect-EPIC study [[40]]. More than 16,000 women were followed
vascular calcification 18390 with COPD.In a rat model, equivalent doses of vitamin K1 and K2 were equally effective in reversing vascular calcification s [[44]]. Inactivation of MGP by the administration of VKAs led to rapid calcification of arteries in
vascular calcification 20390 the vitamin K cycle and the activation of MGP. It is therefore not to be expected that DOACs promote vascular calcification and/or elastin degradation. A variety of studies are currently registered on ClinicalTrials.gov comparing
vascular calcification 20567 currently registered on ClinicalTrials.gov comparing the effects of VKAs and DOACs on progression of vascular calcification [[47]]. Our group intends to conduct a trial assessing the differential effects of both anticoagulant
vascular calcification 21578 assess the effects of high and low vitamin K status on lung destruction. Analogously to a rat model of vascular calcification , vitamin K deficiency is probably best induced in these experiments by combining high-dose VKAs to prevent
vitamin K deficiency 2860 still widely used as anticoagulant drugs. VKAs inhibit vitamin K recycling thereby inducing functional vitamin K deficiency [[7], [8]]. Vitamin K is generally known as an activator of coagulation proteins in the liver and therefore
vitamin K deficiency 5598 emphysema in a large observational study [[17]].Fig. 1Proposed mechanisms that could be responsible for vitamin K deficiency . Low vitamin K consumption and use of vitamin K antagonists induce vitamin K deficiency. It is likely
vitamin K deficiency 5686 responsible for vitamin K deficiency. Low vitamin K consumption and use of vitamin K antagonists induce vitamin K deficiency . It is likely that polymorphisms in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene associated
vitamin K deficiency 5864 reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene associated with low vitamin K recycling rates predispose to vitamin K deficiency . Accelerated elastin degradation, due to a protease/antiprotease imbalance, leads to elastin calcification
vitamin K deficiency 9033 aging [[22]]. Arterial calcifications can be induced in rats via the administration of VKAs to induce vitamin K deficiency and thereby preventing vitamin K-dependent MGP activation [[11]]. A similar mechanism has also been
vitamin K deficiency 14560 at the expense of places where shortage only has long-term consequences (Fig. 3) [[37]]. Regarding vitamin K deficiency , increased bleeding tendency is the biggest short-term threat for survival, and the limited supply of
vitamin K deficiency 15360 survival in patients with COPD.Fig. 3Triage theory. The triage theory implies that in case of mild vitamin K deficiency the coagulation factors are still activated by vitamin K, however, the anticoagulation protein S in
vitamin K deficiency 15849 emphysema. Vascular calcification begins at the elastin fibers in the vascular walls. Only in case of severe vitamin K deficiency , coagulation factors are also insufficiently activated leading to increased bleeding tendencyVitamin
vitamin K deficiency 19293 degradation might contribute to disease progression and mortality in patients with COPD. VKAs cause vitamin K deficiency leading to inadequate levels of active MGP to protect elastin fibers from calcification. MGP is virtually
vitamin K deficiency 21602 and low vitamin K status on lung destruction. Analogously to a rat model of vascular calcification, vitamin K deficiency is probably best induced in these experiments by combining high-dose VKAs to prevent vitamin K-dependent
vitamin K deficiency 21849 vitamin K1 to prevent hemorrhage [[11]].Furthermore, large human cohort studies are needed to see if vitamin K deficiency is a significant factor for pulmonary disease progression in COPD. Intervention trials in patients with

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