Unresolved Issues for Utilization of Atypical Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: Antipsychotic Polypharmacy and Metabolic Syndrome.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetic ketoacidosis 2 endocrinologydiseases
glucose intolerance 6 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 3 endocrinologydiseases
hyperlipidemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperprolactinemia 4 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 11 endocrinologydiseases

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diabetes mellitus 4000 the effects of AAP-induced insulin sensitivity. Patients with schizophrenia are not only at risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but also taking AAP further increases the chance of developing non-insulin-dependent hyperglycemia.
diabetic ketoacidosis 25310 ketoacidosis is a serious acute complication of DM with a mortality of about 2–20% [[76]]. Multiple cases of diabetic ketoacidosis during treatment with clozapine and olanzapine have been reported, and some cases have occurred during
diabetic ketoacidosis 26937 associated with glucose intolerance, and olanzapine has also been implicated in increased insulin levels and diabetic ketoacidosis [[81],[82]]. Patients who were treated with perphenazine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone showed
glucose intolerance 23045 prerequisite for an increase in blood sugar [[66]].Although weight gain is not an essential precedent of DM, glucose intolerance is certainly closely linked to weight gain. As antipsychotics induce weight gain to different degrees,
glucose intolerance 24184 and weight gain, changes in the functions of H1 receptors may also contribute to the development of glucose intolerance during the use of AAPs. Abnormalities in H1 receptors disrupt the anorectic effects of leptin, which
glucose intolerance 26392 Type of Atypical AntipsychoticOlanzapine has been shown to have the greatest effects on weight gain, glucose intolerance , and lipid abnormality as compared to other antipsychotics. In one meta-analysis, the predicted average
glucose intolerance 26844 olanzapine group [[54]]. Multiple studies have consistently reported that olanzapine is associated with glucose intolerance , and olanzapine has also been implicated in increased insulin levels and diabetic ketoacidosis [[81],[82]].
glucose intolerance 34276 safer than TAP in terms of side effects, but it can cause metabolic syndrome, including weight gain, glucose intolerance , and dyslipidemia. Antipsychotics are believed to have great effects on weight gain according to their
glucose intolerance 34578 and H2) receptors. Olanzapine and clozapine were associated with higher prevalence of weight gain and glucose intolerance as compared to other AAPs, while aripiprazole and ziprasidone have been reported to be associated with
hyperglycemia 4109 mellitus (DM), but also taking AAP further increases the chance of developing non-insulin-dependent hyperglycemia . These metabolic adverse effects are often associated with non-compliance and medical problems.Third,
hyperglycemia 23439 its antagonistic effect on serotonin receptors [[56]]. An increase in abdominal fat may contribute to hyperglycemia by reducing insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscles [[67]]. In addition, AAP’s antagonistic action
hyperglycemia 28346 shown signs of insulin resistance even without gaining weight [[86]]. Rapid onset of DM and loss of hyperglycemia after cessation of medications are particularly more prominent in cases involving olanzapine and clozapine.
hyperlipidemia 25594 Atypical Antipsychotics and DyslipidemiaSchizophrenic patients have heightened risks for dyslipidemia or hyperlipidemia , and this is related to the schizophrenic patients’ poor dietary and lifestyle habits [[78]]. Furthermore,
hyperprolactinemia 2332 or absent propensity to induce extrapyramidal symptoms at therapeutic dosage, a lower risk to induce hyperprolactinemia , and a higher efficacy in managing both positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Nevertheless,
hyperprolactinemia 10302 yield additional benefits [[23]]. Furthermore, aripiprazole, a partial agonist of dopamine, may improve hyperprolactinemia caused by other antipsychotics that block D2 receptors [[12]].Third, antipsychotics that are used in
hyperprolactinemia 17168 antipsychotics or controlling symptoms other than psychotic symptoms such as metabolic adverse effect and hyperprolactinemia [[32],[45]].3.4. Hazards Associated with Antipsychotic PolypharmacyThe first reason underlying the heavy
hyperprolactinemia 33720 effective in clozapine-resistant patients, and that aripiprazole polypharmacy may reduce the incidence of hyperprolactinemia or metabolic side effects. However, there are also reports that polypharmacy increases the prevalence
metabolic syndrome 1256 strategy with a continually growing evidence base. Second, AAP generally have great risks for developing metabolic syndrome , such as weight gain, abnormality in glucose, and lipid metabolism. These metabolic side effects have
metabolic syndrome 3455 the rationale and background of this practice.Second, AAP generally have great risks for developing metabolic syndrome , such as weight gain, abnormality in glucose, and lipid metabolism [[4]]. The mechanisms of AAP-induced
metabolic syndrome 3578 such as weight gain, abnormality in glucose, and lipid metabolism [[4]]. The mechanisms of AAP-induced metabolic syndrome are variable and complex, but much clinical research has shown that AAP may affect body weight through
metabolic syndrome 5348 thesaurus terms: [atypical antipsychotics/second generation antipsychotics] AND [polypharmacy/combination/ metabolic syndrome ]. The inclusion criteria included: (i) original articles examining atypical antipsychotics mechanisms
metabolic syndrome 18540 and suicide [[51]]. Moreover, polypharmacy increases the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome s, such as weight gain and diabetes [[46]], further reducing the survival rate of schizophrenic patients.
metabolic syndrome 19301 consistent. Thus, polypharmacy should be chosen prudently for patients with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome . Finally, the increased medical costs and financial burden on patients should also be considered when
metabolic syndrome 27345 which in turn was associated with dyslipidemia, such as increased triglyceride [[81]].The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher among patients who took clozapine than among the general population. However,
metabolic syndrome 29907 and olanzapine [[83]].Recent studies assert that aripiprazole is safer than other drugs in terms of metabolic syndrome [[92]]. In addition, as compared to other AAPs, aripiprazole has been suggested to have benefits in
metabolic syndrome 34233 antipsychotic polypharmacy appropriately. AAP is safer than TAP in terms of side effects, but it can cause metabolic syndrome , including weight gain, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. Antipsychotics are believed to have great
metabolic syndrome 34714 other AAPs, while aripiprazole and ziprasidone have been reported to be associated with little or no metabolic syndrome . Predicting and preventing the development of metabolic abnormalities in patients using AAP are important.
metabolic syndrome 34965 serum glucose, cholesterol level, and weight gain are the most important things to prevent AAP related metabolic syndrome . Future studies should develop specific treatment strategies to control metabolic abnormalities and

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