Nutritional Therapy in Liver Transplantation.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
argininemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
prednisone 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
spironolactone 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
everolimus 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hyperglycemia 9 endocrinologydiseases
hyperlipidemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 7 endocrinologydiseases
osteoporosis 5 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
Wilson disease 1 endocrinologydiseases
argininosuccinic aciduria 1 endocrinologydiseases
urea cycle disorder 1 endocrinologydiseases
galactosemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
hypoglycemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
porphyria 2 endocrinologydiseases
glycogen storage disease 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperinsulinemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetes mellitus 2 endocrinologydiseases
erythropoietic protoporphyria 1 endocrinologydiseases
glucose intolerance 3 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 61642 accumulation, weight gain, osteoporosis and muscle-wasting by impairing REE and substrate oxidation rates. Insulin resistance, postoperative cytokine response, and postmenopausal status in women are other suggested
everolimus 47585 accretion and fiber-type determination [[89],[95]]. Other immunosuppressive agents, such as sirolimus and everolimus , negatively influence muscle mass by inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin complex, which is
prednisone 52521 transplantation was significantly associated with hypermetabolism before LT and a higher cumulative dose of prednisone . Energy expenditure normalized only when insulin sensitivity was restored. However, those patients with
spironolactone 52073 glycyrrhizin, can reduce the effectiveness of blood pressure medications and diuretics such as Aldactone ( spironolactone ). It can also increase the risk of Lanoxin (digoxin) toxicity. Resveratrol, an antioxidant compound
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
Wilson disease 65523 salts supplements when used in a timely manner can augment chelation therapy to prevent progression of Wilson disease . Likewise, iron-free diet in haemochromatosis. Mannose or Fucose supplementations are essential in some
argininemia 64792 arginine deficiency. Arginine supplementation is therefore essential in argininosuccinic aciduria or argininemia to increase nitrogen excretion. However, in carbamyl phosphate synthetase or ornithine transcarbamylase
argininosuccinic aciduria 64763 protein-restricted diet will lead to arginine deficiency. Arginine supplementation is therefore essential in argininosuccinic aciduria or argininemia to increase nitrogen excretion. However, in carbamyl phosphate synthetase or ornithine
diabetes mellitus 39356 fructose with a glycosidic bond). Isomaltulose is often used instead of sugar in diets for patients with diabetes mellitus since it prevents postprandial hyperglycemia due to slow resolution. An IMD enriched with HWP has been
diabetes mellitus 59857 post-LT, especially with immobility, and is associated with an increased risk of major vascular events, diabetes mellitus , hypertension, cancer and fibrosis progression. These conditions contribute to long-term morbidity and
erythropoietic protoporphyria 65363 or the need for exchange transfusions in crigler najjar cases. Hydrophilic bile acids are used for erythropoietic protoporphyria . Copper-free diet and zinc salts supplements when used in a timely manner can augment chelation therapy
galactosemia 63690 pediatric liver transplants [[136]]. Strict galactose- or fructose-free preoperative diets are needed in galactosemia and hereditary fructose intolerance, respectively. Frequent feedings are needed in glycogen storage
glucose intolerance 8142 inducing factors contributing to accelerating catabolism [[18]]. Although hyperinsulinemia is present, glucose intolerance ensues due to insulin resistance, decreased glycogen stores and impaired glycogenolysis. This subsequently
glucose intolerance 30493 has been demonstrated to lower ammonia, and improve albumin, prealbumin, total lymphocyte count, BTR, glucose intolerance , liver regeneration, immune system function, maturation of dendritic cells and the ability of peripheral
glucose intolerance 33163 alterations of smell and taste, alterations in protein metabolism, and HE. Zinc supplementation improves glucose intolerance and decreases ammonia levels [[31],[32],[76]].Bitetto et al. [[79]] observed that vitamin D may act
glycogen storage disease 63786 in galactosemia and hereditary fructose intolerance, respectively. Frequent feedings are needed in glycogen storage disease s, which often includes continuous nighttime nasogastric feedings in infants. Uncooked cornstarch ingested
hyperglycemia 6406 IntakePatients with liver disease have decreased energy intake due to anorexia caused by zinc deficiency, hyperglycemia and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6
hyperglycemia 22862 2–3 g/kg body weight per day of glucose. Administration of glucose in excess will result in severe hyperglycemia , lipogenesis and increased carbon dioxide production [[47],[48]]. Patients with liver failure can have
hyperglycemia 23111 homeostasis; therefore, careful monitoring of serum glucose is needed to avoid complications associated with hyperglycemia [[48]]. In the early postoperative phase, a dysfunction of glucose metabolism associated with insulin
hyperglycemia 36860 malnourished metabolically stressed pre-LT patient in excess of the patient’s energy expenditure lead to hyperglycemia and increased incidence of infection [[48]]. The goal of nutritional support for the patient with liver
hyperglycemia 39101 patients after LT, as well as surgical diabetes and insulin resistance, can cause intra- and postoperative hyperglycemia , which has been associated with surgical site infections [[92]]. IMD enriched with HWP contains isomaltulose
hyperglycemia 39405 often used instead of sugar in diets for patients with diabetes mellitus since it prevents postprandial hyperglycemia due to slow resolution. An IMD enriched with HWP has been found to significantly decrease the incidence
hyperglycemia 39534 resolution. An IMD enriched with HWP has been found to significantly decrease the incidence of post-LT hyperglycemia [[93],[95]].2.10. Use of SynbioticsBacterial translocation usually occurring in LC is related to bacterial
hyperglycemia 48403 of oral hypoglycemic or insulin regimens should be tethered according to the progression of diet. If hyperglycemia persists, it should be managed by reducing excess glucose intake, since higher insulin might hamper
hyperglycemia 58103 EN should be covered with long-acting isophane insulin suspension on a sliding scale for episodes of hyperglycemia [[123]].Patients with fulminant hepatic failure are generally well nourished and do not have a pre-hospital
hyperinsulinemia 8113 considered as the most common inducing factors contributing to accelerating catabolism [[18]]. Although hyperinsulinemia is present, glucose intolerance ensues due to insulin resistance, decreased glycogen stores and impaired
hyperlipidemia 59678 high prevalence of sarcopenia does not change after transplantation [[7],[47]].Metabolic syndrome, hyperlipidemia and obesity are common in patients after the first 6 months post-LT, especially with immobility, and
hypoglycemia 64029 hours in older patients has been shown to release glucose slowly and steadily and allows avoidance of hypoglycemia [[137]]. In tyrosinemia, tyrosine free-diet and Nitisinone (NTBC), which blocks the second step in tyrosine
obesity 5548 less apparent, muscle wasting may be present in obese patients, which is identified as “sarcopenic obesity ” [[10],[11]] and underscores the importance of considering muscle depletion in such patients. This
obesity 35572 Over-Supplementation and Physical Rehabilitation ProgramPatients with liver disease commonly suffer from obesity because of continued oral intake along with limitations in physical activity that are often recommended
obesity 44853 least 12 months or more [[38],[39]]. Moreover, other features of malnutrition, such as overweight and obesity , may occur in liver recipients during long-term follow-up.During the stay of surgical intensive care
obesity 46447 g/kg/day (comparing dietary intake before LT and 12 months post-transplant [[73]]. Moreover, overweight or obesity in LT long-term recipients was correlated with the increase in energy intake (from 1542 ± 124 kcal/day
obesity 59300 gaining weight in the subsequent years [[125]], resulting in the alarming prevalence of overweight and obesity [[47]]. During the first 12 months, the fat mass progressively increases in those patients who had previously
obesity 59697 sarcopenia does not change after transplantation [[7],[47]].Metabolic syndrome, hyperlipidemia and obesity are common in patients after the first 6 months post-LT, especially with immobility, and is associated
obesity 61204 profile than cyclosporin, with significantly reduced prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and obesity , together with significantly lower triglyceride levels. Corticosteroids also contribute to post-LT disturbances
osteoporosis 33458 Additionally, Bitetto et al. found that early vitamin D supplementation, in addition to preventing osteoporosis , was independently associated with a lack of acute rejection, which is important because low vitamin
osteoporosis 33939 predictor of mortality in LC patients [[77]].2.7. Correction of Liver OsteodystrophyOsteopenia and osteoporosis are highly prevalent in patients with ESLD, and represent a major cause of morbidity before and after
osteoporosis 34767 for patients with osteopenia and in combination with bisphosphonates for patients with established osteoporosis and/or history of fractures. If steatorrhea is diagnosed, as in cholestatic diseases water-miscible
osteoporosis 61562 [[117],[128]]. Long-term administration of glucocorticoids results in lipid accumulation, weight gain, osteoporosis and muscle-wasting by impairing REE and substrate oxidation rates. Insulin resistance, postoperative
osteoporosis 62304 loss after LT include steroid use, malnutrition, muscle-wasting, immobilization, pre-LT osteopenia or osteoporosis , previous fractures, and immunosuppressive agents. Bone loss occurs mostly within the first 3–6 months
porphyria 65383 exchange transfusions in crigler najjar cases. Hydrophilic bile acids are used for erythropoietic proto porphyria . Copper-free diet and zinc salts supplements when used in a timely manner can augment chelation therapy
porphyria 65732 essential in some congenital disorders of glycosylation. Dextrose 10% infusion suppresses heme synthesis in porphyria [[137],[138],[139]]. A further comprehensive and detailed discussion of age-specific nutritional treatment
urea cycle disorder 64237 in tyrosine degradation are fundamental [[138]].Medical treatment during the acute presentation of urea cycle disorder s is based initially on reducing blood ammonia levels by (a) discontinuing protein intake and supplying

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