Molecular mechanisms involved in podocyte EMT and concomitant diabetic kidney diseases: an update.

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diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 7 endocrinologydiseases
hyperlipidemia 1 endocrinologydiseases

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diabetes mellitus 1442 signaling pathways and expound the podocyte EMT-related DKDs.IntroductionAs a severe kidney complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the major cause of disability and death in patients with diabetes.
hyperglycemia 642 diaphragm (SD) will be altered, and the actin cytoskeleton will be rearranged. Diabetes, especially hyperglycemia , has been demonstrated to incite podocyte EMT through several molecular mechanisms such as TGF-β/Smad
hyperglycemia 5084 bridged by a specialized cell–cell junction known as the slit diaphragm. Podocytes can be injured by hyperglycemia through TGF-β/Smad classic pathway and multiple other pathways. Following EMT process, the podocyte
hyperglycemia 8137 functional-modified tight junction. Additionally, podocyte do undergo an analogous type-2 EMT in response to hyperglycemia and TGF-β. Li[16], Yamaguchi[17], and Kretzler[18] study all independently indicated a loss in nephrin
hyperglycemia 9063 podocyte EMT also increases the research value of podocytes.[15]Molecular mechanisms in podocyte EMT by hyperglycemia High glucose, in vitro and in vivo, could be the inducible factor of podocyte EMT through TGF-β/Smad
hyperglycemia 10092 (ESRD).Figure 2.Molecular mechanisms involved in induction and progression of podocyte EMT caused by hyperglycemia . As can be seen in this figure, high glucose could cause podocyte EMT through multiple signaling pathways
hyperglycemia 14705 individually trigger all the key events of podocyte EMT completely with or without the existence of hyperglycemia . Recent study clearly indicated that TGF-β could stimulate the expression of CTGF to induce sustained
hyperglycemia 31639 to the process of EMT. As to podocytes, podocyte do undergo an analogous type-2 EMT in response to hyperglycemia and TGF-β. In other words, these special EMT also increase the research value of podocytes. Therefore,
hyperlipidemia 9473 signaling pathway, and NF-κB signaling pathway (Figure 2). Moreover, other detrimental factors, such as hyperlipidemia , advanced oxidative products and advanced glycation end products, have currently been proved to play

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