Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon and Peripheral Tissues: A Focus on Butyrate, Colon Cancer, Obesity and Insulin Resistance.

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metabolic syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 29 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 3 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hyperglycemia 1 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 124 Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon and Peripheral Tissues: A Focus on Butyrate, Colon Cancer, Obesity and Insulin ResistanceSean M. McNabneyTara M. HenaganDepartment of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette,
Insulin 42121 circumstances butyrate may exert effects that differ from those of acetate and propionate.4.2. Butyrate and Insulin ResistanceIn addition to its preventive effects on body weight and adiposity butyrate supplementation
Insulin 45608 resistant starch treatment resulted in significantly lower HOMA-IR values relative to the controls [[160]]. Insulin sensitivity in the rats maintained on the whole grain, resistant starch-rich diet was not significantly
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hyperglycemia 17153 noted in the jejunum of diabetic mice, where it acts to increase glucose uptake and may contribute to hyperglycemia , obesity and insulin resistance [[81],[82]]. In addition to its GPCR second messenger and secretory-inducing
metabolic syndrome 65311 infusion↑ peripheral insulin sensitivity; no effect on resting energy expenditure in obese males with metabolic syndrome Chronic StudyShort Chain Fatty Acid(s) or Dietary Fiber CompositionControl GroupRoute of AdministrationDuration
obesity 465 dietary fiber consumption has been associated with many beneficial effects, including amelioration of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects may be due to the increased production of short chain fatty acids,
obesity 784 oral and dietary supplementation of butyrate alone has been shown to prevent high fat-diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. This review focuses on sources of short chain fatty acids, with emphasis on
obesity 1122 peripheral effects of butyrate supplementation in peripheral tissues in the prevention and reversal of obesity and insulin resistance.1. IntroductionOne of the widely recognized benefits of fiber consumption is
obesity 2849 We also review the action of butyrate in peripheral tissues with respect to its ability to prevent obesity and insulin resistance which may have translatable effects for the clinical treatment and prevention
obesity 2961 insulin resistance which may have translatable effects for the clinical treatment and prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D).2. Dietary Sources of Butyrate2.1. MilkBovine milk fat is a particularly rich
obesity 16952 [[78],[79],[80]]. Thus butyrate-induced upregulation of GLP-1 and PYY may be important in preventing or treating obesity and insulin resistance. Conversely, age-dependent increased expression of GPR109A has been noted in
obesity 17168 jejunum of diabetic mice, where it acts to increase glucose uptake and may contribute to hyperglycemia, obesity and insulin resistance [[81],[82]]. In addition to its GPCR second messenger and secretory-inducing
obesity 30705 junction localization, intestinal permeability and gut microbial diversity may precede the development of obesity and T2D [[129],[130]]. As the mucosal layer becomes less capable of repelling unfavorable bacterial
obesity 31206 barrier, the individual may experience persistent low-grade inflammation, which has been associated with obesity and insulin resistance as well as dysfunction of the peripheral tissues [[131]]. In a Caco-2 cell model
obesity 33515 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) [[132],[133],[134]]. Even more troubling, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents assessed between 2011 and 2012 was reported as 31.8% [[132]]. Obesity imposes
obesity 33727 imposes significant costs on the United States economy, as the aggregate national cost of overweight- and obesity -related medical treatment has been estimated at $113.9 billion [[135]]. Obesity also exerts financial
obesity 34020 productivity (“presenteeism”) are associated with increasing BMI levels [[136],[137],[138]]. Moreover, obesity is associated with several pathologies including cardiovascular disease (CVD) [[134],[139],[140],[141],[142]],
obesity 34917 increased dietary fiber or bacterial colonization in the gut, have been shown to prevent or attenuate obesity and insulin resistance [[6],[11],[12],[13],[17],[155],[156],[157],[158],[159],[160],[161]].4.1. Butyrate
obesity 35690 and higher muscle content [[6]]. In addition to investigating the preventative effects of butyrate on obesity , investigators also examined its ability to reverse obesity and insulin resistance following HFD feeding
obesity 35750 the preventative effects of butyrate on obesity, investigators also examined its ability to reverse obesity and insulin resistance following HFD feeding over a 16-week period. Butyrate was supplemented into the
obesity 40623 260®)) on body weight and metabolic parameters in C57BL/6J mice and two polygenic murine models of obesity : NONcNZO10/LtJ and Non/ShiLtJ mice, respectively [[12]]. Although resistant starch treatment improved
obesity 40867 for C57BL/6J maintained on a 7% fat diet, the resistant starch did not improve these parameters in obesity -prone polygenic strains nor did it improve adiposity [[12]]. The investigators asserted that gut microbial
obesity 41079 microbial diversity may differ widely among the three mouse strains and might account for the inability of obesity -prone polygenic mice to ferment resistant starches in the colon but such data were not included in the
obesity 48273 indicate that butyrate supplementation through various means may have beneficial effects on preventing obesity and whole-body insulin resistance, which are characterized by aberrant metabolism in peripheral tissues.
obesity 48802 Butyrate and Peripheral TissuesThe mechanisms through which butyrate acts to attenuate and ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance are not fully understood but clearly involve contributions from various peripheral
obesity 53729 tissues and utilizes a significant proportion of blood glucose during metabolism [[176]]. In cases of obesity or T2D, glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation become compromised, leading to increased ectopic lipid
obesity 57046 there was a significant increase in Pgc-1α gene expression that was associated with prevention of obesity and insulin resistance as well as improved mitochondrial function and a higher percentage of type 1
obesity 57223 a higher percentage of type 1 oxidative fibers in skeletal muscle [[7]]. Thus butyrate may prevent obesity and insulin resistance partially by acting on the skeletal muscle to improve its oxidative capacity.5.3.
obesity 58316 supplementation increases fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue in addition to preventing diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance [[186]]. The authors also noted that increased fatty acid oxidation was due to
obesity 58875 ability to prevent adipose tissue inflammation, a contributing factor to insulin resistance during obesity [[189]]. Butyrate also causes browning of white adipose tissue, with decreased adipocyte size and increased
obesity 59947 leptin production [[193]]. Butyrate-induced increased levels of leptin may be important in preventing obesity , as leptin acts within the hypothalamus to reduce food consumption and increase energy expenditure.
obesity 60442 and in vivo animal studies support the ability of butyrate supplementation to prevent colon cancer, obesity and insulin resistance, few studies in human participants have been conducted to date to corroborate
obesity 63336 within these tissues, the literature has shown that butyrate supplementation has the ability to prevent obesity and insulin resistance through its actions in peripheral tissues. Mainly butyrate supplementation acts
obesity 63763 dietary strategies that can increases butyrate levels may serve as likely treats to mitigate cancer, obesity and T2D. Thus, additional translational and clinical studies in these areas are warranted.Figure 1Summary

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