Unusual presentations of functional parathyroid cysts: a case series and review of the literature.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
sitagliptin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hypercalcemia 6 endocrinologydiseases
hyperparathyroidism 22 endocrinologydiseases
multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 endocrinologydiseases
primary hyperparathyroidism 9 endocrinologydiseases
thyroglobulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
thyroid carcinoma 1 endocrinologydiseases
thyroid crisis 2 endocrinologydiseases
goiter 2 endocrinologydiseases
metformin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
nodular goiter 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 1 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
metformin 8506 bilateral kidney stones. She was treated by candesartan 8 mg daily, gliclazide 30 mg daily, and combined metformin 1000 mg/sitagliptin 50 mg twice a day. She also complained of a rapidly growing mass in the left side
sitagliptin 8525 She was treated by candesartan 8 mg daily, gliclazide 30 mg daily, and combined metformin 1000 mg/ sitagliptin 50 mg twice a day. She also complained of a rapidly growing mass in the left side of her neck. A physical
thyroglobulin 18256 calcium testing can reveal the difference. In a thyroid cyst, intracystic values of thyroid hormones and thyroglobulin are high, in contrast to PTH which is generally undetectable [[15], [20], [41]]. In case of a parathyroid
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
goiter 15151 hyperplasia [[16]], contralateral parathyroid adenoma with hyperparathyroidism [[18], [27]], or multinodular goiter in 18% of cases [[30]], but may just reflect incidental findings.In more than 85% of cases, parathyroid
goiter 15668 (< 1 cm) have been described as well. Cervicomediastinal parathyroid cysts can be mistaken for mediastinal goiter s [[19], [26]]. Mediastinal cysts (10 to 15% of cases) up to 12 cm large [[26]], and functionally active
hypercalcemia 906 presentationsPatient 1, an 87-year-old Caucasian woman presented with confusion and dysphagia. She had hypercalcemia and elevated parathyroid hormone levels suggesting primary hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid scintigraphy
hypercalcemia 4060 80 beats/minute, and temperature was 36.5 °C. She was disoriented and dehydrated. Blood tests revealed hypercalcemia (13.8 mg/dl; normal range, 8.6 to 10.2 mg/dl), elevated PTH levels (305 pg/ml; normal range, 10 to
hypercalcemia 7040 hypertensive crisis. Investigations excluded renovascular or adrenal causes for her hypertension. However, hypercalcemia and raised PTH levels (169 pg/ml; normal value, 10 to 70 pg/ml) suggested a diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism.
hypercalcemia 10848 than lower localizations; and (iii) the clinical presentations were remarkable, with stupor due to hypercalcemia in case 1, transient ischemic attack in hypertensive crisis in case 2, and appearance of a compressive
hypercalcemia 13998 Some cysts are discovered during work-up for dyspnea, dysphagia, or hoarseness [[20]]. Symptomatic hypercalcemia with polyuria, thirst and/or nephrolithiasis can be the first manifestations of a functional parathyroid
hypercalcemia 14322 cyst rupture with discharge of large amounts of PTH into the blood stream. In some cases, signs of hypercalcemia and signs of compression of adjacent structures may coexist [[22]].Clinical examination may reveal a
hyperparathyroidism 506 can easily be mistaken as thyroidal cysts. Functional parathyroid cysts, with symptoms and signs of hyperparathyroidism , are rare and may be a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. We report here on three cases of functional
hyperparathyroidism 979 confusion and dysphagia. She had hypercalcemia and elevated parathyroid hormone levels suggesting primary hyperparathyroidism . Parathyroid scintigraphy did not reveal any focal uptake, but a computed tomography scan of her neck
hyperparathyroidism 1323 Patient 2, a 31-year-old Caucasian woman was investigated after a hypertensive crisis related to primary hyperparathyroidism . Cervical ultrasound identified a large cystic lesion in the lower left thyroid lobe that was removed
hyperparathyroidism 1626 presented with an indolent growing mass of the neck and a past medical history of kidney stones. Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed. Ultrasound showed a cystic mass, but parathyroid scintigraphy was negative. Cervical
hyperparathyroidism 2165 option. Despite its rarity, differential diagnosis of cystic lesion of the neck should include primary hyperparathyroidism due to functional parathyroid cysts.BackgroundCysts of the parathyroid gland are traditionally classified
hyperparathyroidism 2563 generally discovered during thyroid or cervical investigations, and are not associated with primary hyperparathyroidism [[2]]. By contrast, functional cysts induce symptoms and signs of primary hyperparathyroidism. Their
hyperparathyroidism 2657 primary hyperparathyroidism [[2]]. By contrast, functional cysts induce symptoms and signs of primary hyperparathyroidism . Their fluid contains high concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which may induce parathyroid
hyperparathyroidism 3387 scintigraphy with technetium 99 m (99mTc)-sesta methoxyisobutylisonitrile (sestamibi) for primary hyperparathyroidism and introduction of minimally invasive focused surgery. During this time period, 187 patients underwent
hyperparathyroidism 3541 invasive focused surgery. During this time period, 187 patients underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism and 32 patients for secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Three patients with parathyroid cysts
hyperparathyroidism 3603 underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism and 32 patients for secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism . Three patients with parathyroid cysts were identified during this period (1.4% of all cases of operated
hyperparathyroidism 3728 Three patients with parathyroid cysts were identified during this period (1.4% of all cases of operated hyperparathyroidism ).Case 1An 87-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our emergency room with a 10-day history of progressive
hyperparathyroidism 7145 hypercalcemia and raised PTH levels (169 pg/ml; normal value, 10 to 70 pg/ml) suggested a diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism . A cervical ultrasound (US) showed an isolated 2 cm mixed solid and cystic nodule. Double-phase parathyroid
hyperparathyroidism 10645 (i) functional parathyroid cysts are rare, especially in women, representing less than 1% of primary hyperparathyroidism ; (ii) cysts localized in the superior parathyroid glands (case 1) are less frequent than lower localizations;
hyperparathyroidism 11674 neck USs (0.075%) [[4]] and a prevalence of 3% was found in patients operated for cervical mass or hyperparathyroidism [[5]]. Moreover, a few series have reported on the incidence of functional cysts, which may vary from
hyperparathyroidism 11885 vary from 10 to 33% [[6], [7]]. In a cohort of 1700 patients who had undergone surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism , six cases (<1%) of cystic transformation of the parathyroid glands were described, of which five were
hyperparathyroidism 14797 thyroidal mass [[25]] or all other cervical tumors.Non-functional cysts, by definition, do not cause hyperparathyroidism . They contain a clear mucinous fluid [[16], [26], [27]]; their walls are thin and limited by a flat,
hyperparathyroidism 15101 concurrent neck diseases, like parathyroid hyperplasia [[16]], contralateral parathyroid adenoma with hyperparathyroidism [[18], [27]], or multinodular goiter in 18% of cases [[30]], but may just reflect incidental findings.In
hyperparathyroidism 17597 Promising results were found with 18F-choline positron emission tomography (PET)-CT in the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism [[37], [38]], especially when conventional imaging modalities were inconclusive [[39]]. It may be especially
hyperparathyroidism 22904 performed, including PTH dosage. If intracystic PTH levels are high and the patient has no sign of hyperparathyroidism , including normal plasma and calcium levels, yearly surveillance is advisable. If PTH is undetectable,
hyperparathyroidism 23337 surgically removed. So, patients with cystic lesion of the neck should be asked for symptoms and signs of hyperparathyroidism , with the knowledge that the disease has an extremely large and variable presentation.We must admit,
hyperparathyroidism 23681 multicentric prospective study.ConclusionsParathyroid cyst should be evoked, and signs and symptoms of hyperparathyroidism actively searched for when facing any cystic tumor in the anterior neck or the upper mediastinum. The
hyperparathyroidism 23855 the anterior neck or the upper mediastinum. The best investigation for a functional cyst defined by hyperparathyroidism is US and sestamibi scan in order to localize the functional gland before surgery. US-guided fine-needle
multiple endocrine neoplasia 16223 or associations have been described, such as parathyroid cyst in systemic lupus [[32]] or in type 1 multiple endocrine neoplasia , a condition frequently leading to functional parathyroid adenoma [[33]].InvestigationsCervical ultrasonography
nodular goiter 15143 hyperplasia [[16]], contralateral parathyroid adenoma with hyperparathyroidism [[18], [27]], or multi nodular goiter in 18% of cases [[30]], but may just reflect incidental findings.In more than 85% of cases, parathyroid
obesity 8663 also complained of a rapidly growing mass in the left side of her neck. A physical examination showed obesity with a body mass index (BMI) of 32 kg/m2 and revealed a soft and mobile mass on the left side of her
primary hyperparathyroidism 971 with confusion and dysphagia. She had hypercalcemia and elevated parathyroid hormone levels suggesting primary hyperparathyroidism . Parathyroid scintigraphy did not reveal any focal uptake, but a computed tomography scan of her neck
primary hyperparathyroidism 1315 removed. Patient 2, a 31-year-old Caucasian woman was investigated after a hypertensive crisis related to primary hyperparathyroidism . Cervical ultrasound identified a large cystic lesion in the lower left thyroid lobe that was removed
primary hyperparathyroidism 2157 treatment option. Despite its rarity, differential diagnosis of cystic lesion of the neck should include primary hyperparathyroidism due to functional parathyroid cysts.BackgroundCysts of the parathyroid gland are traditionally classified
primary hyperparathyroidism 2555 non-functional, generally discovered during thyroid or cervical investigations, and are not associated with primary hyperparathyroidism [[2]]. By contrast, functional cysts induce symptoms and signs of primary hyperparathyroidism. Their
primary hyperparathyroidism 2649 with primary hyperparathyroidism [[2]]. By contrast, functional cysts induce symptoms and signs of primary hyperparathyroidism . Their fluid contains high concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which may induce parathyroid
primary hyperparathyroidism 3379 parathyroid scintigraphy with technetium 99 m (99mTc)-sesta methoxyisobutylisonitrile (sestamibi) for primary hyperparathyroidism and introduction of minimally invasive focused surgery. During this time period, 187 patients underwent
primary hyperparathyroidism 3533 minimally invasive focused surgery. During this time period, 187 patients underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism and 32 patients for secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Three patients with parathyroid cysts
primary hyperparathyroidism 10637 aspects: (i) functional parathyroid cysts are rare, especially in women, representing less than 1% of primary hyperparathyroidism ; (ii) cysts localized in the superior parathyroid glands (case 1) are less frequent than lower localizations;
primary hyperparathyroidism 11877 which may vary from 10 to 33% [[6], [7]]. In a cohort of 1700 patients who had undergone surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism , six cases (<1%) of cystic transformation of the parathyroid glands were described, of which five were
thyroid carcinoma 20732 therapeutic approach for several reasons [[12]]: (i) although rare, the possibility of a cystic para thyroid carcinoma should not be missed because of the dramatic consequences of an inappropriate procedure [[45]]; (ii)
thyroid crisis 2770 hyperparathyroidism. Their fluid contains high concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which may induce para thyroid crisis in case of rupture. Here, we report three cases of patients with functional parathyroid cysts, with
thyroid crisis 14145 nephrolithiasis can be the first manifestations of a functional parathyroid cyst. Symptoms of overt para thyroid crisis can lead to confusion and even coma [[21]] and might be due to cyst rupture with discharge of large

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