The Role of Vitamin D in Thyroid Diseases.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
autoimmune thyroiditis 4 endocrinologydiseases
calcitriol 4 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
cholecalciferol 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
goiter 2 endocrinologydiseases
hyperthyroidism 3 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 2 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 1 endocrinologydiseases
thyroglobulin 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
thyroid carcinoma 3 endocrinologydiseases
ergocalciferol 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hypothyroidism 9 endocrinologydiseases
thyroiditis 9 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
calcitriol 3779 inactive and must be converted to the biologically active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D or calcitriol ) by 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) in the kidneys. The activity of the 1α-hydroxylase enzyme is under strict
calcitriol 25234 anti-inflammatory actions within the tumor microenvironment. Perhaps the most recognized anti-neoplastic effect of calcitriol is its ability to inhibit cell proliferation [[53]]. 1,25(OH)2D increases the expression of the cyclin-dependent
calcitriol 30352 [[57]].In female SCID mice that were implanted with human thyroid follicular carcinoma-derived (WRO) cells, calcitriol administration was observed to reduce tumor size, enhance cellular differentiation, and prevent metastatic
calcitriol 30903 StudiesMultiple cell culture and animal models of cancer support a role for dietary vitamin D3 and calcitriol in impeding cancer development and progression. However, data from human clinical trials are inconsistent
cholecalciferol 2797 included.2. Vitamin D Sources, Metabolism, and ActionThere are two forms of vitamin D, vitamin D3 (or cholecalciferol ) and vitamin D2 (or ergocalciferol). The former is mainly synthesized in the skin by 7-dehydrocholesterol
ergocalciferol 2833 Metabolism, and ActionThere are two forms of vitamin D, vitamin D3 (or cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (or ergocalciferol ). The former is mainly synthesized in the skin by 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase upon exposure to ultraviolet
thyroglobulin 6924 disease characterized by a diffuse goiter, the presence of anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and/or anti- thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibodies in serum, varying degree of thyroid hypofunction, and intrathyroidal infiltration
thyroglobulin 48563 Graves’ disease; SD, significant difference; anti-TPO, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody; anti-Tg, anti- thyroglobulin antibody; NA, not available; OR, odds ratio; D, deficient; I, insufficient; S, sufficient; AIT, autoimmune
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
autoimmune thyroiditis 6747 infiltration into the thyroid gland and production of thyroid-specific autoantibodies [[12],[13]]. Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis , or HT, is a typical T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease characterized by a diffuse goiter, the presence
autoimmune thyroiditis 10191 1,25(OH)2D in addition to cyclosporine was demonstrated to effectively prevent the induction of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) with a synergistic effect in CBA mice [[17],[18]]. In another study using an EAT model in Wistar
autoimmune thyroiditis 16395 of <50 nmol/L (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21–4.3) [[33]]. Metwalley et al., investigated 56 children with autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and 56 healthy controls and reported similar results, including a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency
autoimmune thyroiditis 48673 anti-thyroglobulin antibody; NA, not available; OR, odds ratio; D, deficient; I, insufficient; S, sufficient; AIT, autoimmune thyroiditis ; DD: severely deficient; TSH, thyroid stimulating hormone; anti-TSHR, anti-TSH receptor antibody.ijms-18-01949-t002_Table
goiter 6853 autoimmune thyroiditis, or HT, is a typical T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease characterized by a diffuse goiter , the presence of anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and/or anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibodies in
goiter 51771 cancer; FTC, follicular thyroid cancer; ATC, anaplastic thyroid cancer; MNG, multinodular nontoxic goiter ; NA, not available; 1,25(OH)2D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; DD, severely deficient; I, insufficient; S,
hyperthyroidism 7392 hormone (TSH) receptor. This stimulates the growth and function of thyroid follicular cells leading to hyperthyroidism , indicating a humoral immune response [[12]]. In summary, in genetically predisposed individuals, the
hyperthyroidism 7876 hyperreactive Th2-mediated humoral response against TSH receptor (TSHR) with stimulatory antibodies leading to hyperthyroidism in GD [[12]].Vitamin D plays a significant role in modulation of the immune system, enhancing the innate
hyperthyroidism 10558 the cytokine disequilibrium [[19]]. In addition, vitamin D-deficient BALB/c mice developed persistent hyperthyroidism after immunization with TSHR, not seen in vitamin D-sufficient mice [[20]].3.3. Human StudiesSeveral
hypothyroidism 7734 immune response. This results in a Th1-cell-mediated autoimmune reaction with thyrocyte destruction and hypothyroidism in HT, but in a hyperreactive Th2-mediated humoral response against TSH receptor (TSHR) with stimulatory
hypothyroidism 11704 the HT cases, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency tended to be higher in patients with overt hypothyroidism (47/50, 94%) or subclinical hypothyroidism (44/45, 98%) than in those with euthyroidism (57/66, 86%),
hypothyroidism 11747 insufficiency tended to be higher in patients with overt hypothyroidism (47/50, 94%) or subclinical hypothyroidism (44/45, 98%) than in those with euthyroidism (57/66, 86%), although the differences were not statistically
hypothyroidism 12248 levels, suggesting a potential role of vitamin D in the development of HT and/or its progression to hypothyroidism [[23]]. By comparing 41 hypothyroid HT patients with 45 healthy euthyroid individuals, Mansournia et
hypothyroidism 14235 than in those with GD or non-AITD (p = 0.017). In addition, among the HT cases, patients with overt hypothyroidism had a higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (p < 0.001) and lower 25(OH)D levels (p = 0.009)
hypothyroidism 14410 0.001) and lower 25(OH)D levels (p = 0.009) compared with HT patients with euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism or patients without AITD. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly negatively correlated with serum TSH
hypothyroidism 16712 0.001) in the AIT group compared to the controls. The difference was more evident in patients with overt hypothyroidism than those with subclinical hypothyroidism (9.5 vs. 16.4 nmol/L; p < 0.01). In addition, there were
hypothyroidism 16755 controls. The difference was more evident in patients with overt hypothyroidism than those with subclinical hypothyroidism (9.5 vs. 16.4 nmol/L; p < 0.01). In addition, there were significant negative correlations between serum
hypothyroidism 17139 significantly associated with AIT, but is not an independent risk factor for the progression of AIT to overt hypothyroidism [[34]].Of note, a few studies that have evaluated whether vitamin D supplementation is beneficial for
metabolic syndrome 773 D in non-skeletal actions has been studied, including the role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases, metabolic syndrome s, cardiovascular disease, cancers, and all-cause mortality. Recent evidence has demonstrated an association
metabolic syndrome 1733 worldwide, could also have non-skeletal actions including an important role in autoimmune diseases, cancers, metabolic syndrome s, cardiovascular disease, and infection, as well as all-cause mortality [[1],[2],[3]]. Low levels of
obesity 28008 gradually increasing. Risk factors such as exposure to ionizing radiation, chemical genotoxins, and obesity have been implicated in the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer [[55]]. The molecular pathways involved
thyroid carcinoma 30524 cellular differentiation, and prevent metastatic growth as indicated by marked p27 accumulation in the thyroid carcinoma cells [[58]]. In other study using the same mouse model, treatment with 1,25(OH)2D and its noncalciomimetic
thyroid carcinoma 34097 25(OH)D levels were observed, there was an association between VDR polymorphisms and the incidence of thyroid carcinoma [[65]]. Later, the same authors investigated vitamin D status and expression of genes related to vitamin
thyroid carcinoma 40022 PMPRSS4 has been reported in numerous malignant epithelial tumors, and is an independent predictor of a thyroid carcinoma [[80]]. In addition to being elevated in PTC, VDR mRNA overexpression was recently reported to be correlated
thyroiditis 983 demonstrated an association between low vitamin D status and autoimmune thyroid diseases such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease, and impaired vitamin D signaling has been reported in thyroid cancers. This review
thyroiditis 1951 of vitamin D have also been associated with autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and Graves’ disease (GD). Impaired vitamin D signaling has been reported to encourage thyroid
thyroiditis 2511 keywords: vitamin D or vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and autoimmune thyroid disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis , Graves’ disease, thyroid cancer, or thyroid nodule. The references included in previously published
thyroiditis 6758 the thyroid gland and production of thyroid-specific autoantibodies [[12],[13]]. Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis , or HT, is a typical T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease characterized by a diffuse goiter, the presence
thyroiditis 10202 addition to cyclosporine was demonstrated to effectively prevent the induction of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) with a synergistic effect in CBA mice [[17],[18]]. In another study using an EAT model in Wistar
thyroiditis 16406 nmol/L (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21–4.3) [[33]]. Metwalley et al., investigated 56 children with autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and 56 healthy controls and reported similar results, including a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency
thyroiditis 48441 in anti-TSHR (+) GD25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; AITD, autoimmune thyroid disease; HT, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis ; GD, Graves’ disease; SD, significant difference; anti-TPO, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody; anti-Tg,
thyroiditis 48684 antibody; NA, not available; OR, odds ratio; D, deficient; I, insufficient; S, sufficient; AIT, autoimmune thyroiditis ; DD: severely deficient; TSH, thyroid stimulating hormone; anti-TSHR, anti-TSH receptor antibody.ijms-18-01949-t002_Table
thyroiditis 51934 DD, severely deficient; I, insufficient; S, sufficient; CYP24A1, 24-hydroxylase; HT, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis ; US, ultrasonography; FNA, fine-needle aspiration; AITD, autoimmune thyroid disease; E, excess

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