Hemostasis, endothelial stress, inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
diabetes mellitus 4 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 6 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 5 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 15 endocrinologydiseases
type 2 diabetes mellitus 2 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 10102 platelets to become activated and blood clot formation, suggesting a link between these conditions. Insulin signaling in endothelial cellsGiven that the key defining parameters of the MS are cardiovascular impairments
Insulin 10903 pressure and vascular tone, even though no major effects on glucose homeostasis were reported [[28]]. Insulin exerts its vasodilatory role primarily via modulation of nitric oxide (NO) production. NO, a free radical,
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 539 insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and plasma lipids. It is a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and for cardiovascular complications and mortality. Here, we review work demonstrating that various
diabetes mellitus 1603 diet.IntroductionRecent rise in the incidence of obesity has led to a similar increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which constitutes a metabolic disorder affecting more than 10% of the US population [[1]]. In
diabetes mellitus 2108 total health care costs, which adds up to approximately $400 billion in the USA, alone [[1]].Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in contrast to T2DM is normally not associated with obesity, but rather presents an early onset
diabetes mellitus 2958 Diabetic patients thus are much more likely to develop heart disease and stroke than individuals without diabetes mellitus . Furthermore, cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients
hyperglycemia 6668 metabolites. Similarly, advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs), which are the result of intracellular hyperglycemia , have been shown to be involved in mediating vascular damage. Furthermore, hyperglycemia can be the
hyperglycemia 6757 intracellular hyperglycemia, have been shown to be involved in mediating vascular damage. Furthermore, hyperglycemia can be the cause for glycation of proteins, which can promote macro- and microvascular damages. Lastly,
hyperglycemia 6901 of proteins, which can promote macro- and microvascular damages. Lastly, it has been reported that hyperglycemia leads to a hypercoagulable state [[14]].The exact mechanisms which link hyperglycemia and an increased
hyperglycemia 6987 reported that hyperglycemia leads to a hypercoagulable state [[14]].The exact mechanisms which link hyperglycemia and an increased propensity for coagulation are not completely understood. Already in 1979, Jones et
hyperglycemia 8521 microvascular angiopathy, independent of glycemic control [[21]], suggesting that other factors besides hyperglycemia can contribute to the alterations in platelet functionality. Already in 2001, Assert et al. [[18]] could
hyperglycemia 8661 alterations in platelet functionality. Already in 2001, Assert et al. [[18]] could show that short-term hyperglycemia without overt T2DM could lead to the activation of PKC in platelets, suggesting that glucose itself
metabolic syndrome 88 Title: Seminars in ImmunopathologyHemostasis, endothelial stress, inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome Gerald GrandlChristian WolfrumPublication date (epub): 12/2017Publication date (pmc-release): 12/2017Publication
metabolic syndrome 261 12/2017Publication date (pmc-release): 12/2017Publication date (ppub): /2018AbstractObesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) are two of the pressing healthcare problems of our time. The MS is defined as increased abdominal
metabolic syndrome 3112 complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with T1DM and T2DM [[3]].The metabolic syndrome (MS) consists of several interconnected physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors
metabolic syndrome 26034 cardiovascular complications.Inflammation as the common denominator for cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome In discussing the connections between the MS and T2DM, it is important to remember that both of these
metabolic syndrome 29348 anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-coagulatory effects, is beneficial in settings of obesity and the metabolic syndrome [[23], [24], [117], [118]].In conclusion, in this review we provide a broad overview of changes in hemostasis
obesity 383 (MS) are two of the pressing healthcare problems of our time. The MS is defined as increased abdominal obesity in concert with elevated fasting glucose levels, insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and plasma
obesity 1538 cardiovascular complications linked to consumption of a western diet.IntroductionRecent rise in the incidence of obesity has led to a similar increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which constitutes
obesity 2185 USA, alone [[1]].Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in contrast to T2DM is normally not associated with obesity , but rather presents an early onset autoimmune disorder, which leads to ablation of beta-cells and loss
obesity 16688 inflammation, show more pronounced effects on vascular reactivity [[53]].In agreement with the data on obesity and T2DM, there is also evidence that ingestion of high-fat meals has a cumulative effect on vascular
obesity 17961 substrate availability, it has been reported that plasma arginine levels are not acutely changed in early obesity in humans [[66]]. However, endothelial uptake of arginine can be impaired in conditions of inflammation,
obesity 18238 [[67]]. Moreover, there is a lot of evidence that the enzymatic activity of eNOS is changed in states of obesity or diabetes [[57]]. eNOS forms functional dimers in the presence of both ample L-arginine and BH4, a
obesity 20581 [82]].The fact that endothelial NO availability and vascular NO signaling are reduced in states of obesity and diabetes has prompted interest in attempting to correct the disease state by modulating NO availability
obesity 21012 rats, L-arginine supplementation decreased fat mass and insulin levels in both genetic and dietary obesity models [[83], [84]]. In mice, mild metabolic improvements due to L-arginine supplementation were reported
obesity 21986 transgenic overexpression in mice was shown to increase metabolic health, and protect from HFD-induced obesity [[93]], and genetic variations of eNOS are associated with T2DM and aspects of the MS in humans. Overall,
obesity 22332 increasing these signals can have beneficial effects in both cases.Temporal dynamics and mediators of obesity -associated vascular impairmentsWhile the associations of vascular impairments, obesity, and the MS are
obesity 22419 mediators of obesity-associated vascular impairmentsWhile the associations of vascular impairments, obesity , and the MS are very clear, the causality, directionality of the associations, and temporal dynamics
obesity 22944 variety of mediators and cytokines contributing to the progression of vascular disease in the context of obesity , but the two key plasma parameters that seem to be causal, both in the early postprandial phase, as
obesity 27354 inflammation in adipose tissue prevents insulin resistance and/or weight gain in the context of diet-induced obesity [[111]]. However, the root cause of adipose tissue inflammation is still incompletely understood. One
obesity 29332 shown to have both anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-coagulatory effects, is beneficial in settings of obesity and the metabolic syndrome [[23], [24], [117], [118]].In conclusion, in this review we provide a broad
obesity 29515 this review we provide a broad overview of changes in hemostasis and endothelial function occurring in obesity , the MS, as well as the acute postprandial phase. These impairments converge on oxidative stress and
type 2 diabetes mellitus 532 levels, insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and plasma lipids. It is a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and for cardiovascular complications and mortality. Here, we review work demonstrating that various
type 2 diabetes mellitus 1596 diet.IntroductionRecent rise in the incidence of obesity has led to a similar increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which constitutes a metabolic disorder affecting more than 10% of the US population [[1]]. In

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