Environmental Risk Factors for Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
obesity 18 endocrinologydiseases
type 2 diabetes mellitus 2 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
cortisol 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 6 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 2 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 3724 deficiency), or has body cells that are not able to use insulin properly (insulin resistance) [[7]]. Insulin , a hormone produced by the β-cells in the pancreas, controls blood sugar levels. Insulin resistance
Insulin 3814 resistance) [[7]]. Insulin, a hormone produced by the β-cells in the pancreas, controls blood sugar levels. Insulin resistance is related to genetic factors [[7],[8]], obesity, sedentary lifestyle and aging [[7],[9]].
cortisol 9012 systems [[47],[48]]. The strain accrued from stress can stimulate the release of substances (such as cortisol and cytokines) that can damage the immune and body systems accelerating the development and progression
cortisol 46870 in metabolic functions including elevated blood sugar levels [[143],[145]]. Noise can also increase cortisol levels (a hormone that regulates metabolism and helps control blood sugar levels) and lead to insulin
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 679 date (ppub): 1/2018AbstractDifferent elements of the environment have been posited to influence type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This systematic review summarizes evidence on the environmental determinants of T2DM identified
diabetes mellitus 2226 estimated to further increase from that of 415 million in 2015 to 642 million by 2040 [[2]]. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) characterised by excess blood sugar levels accounts for around 90% of the cases [[2]]. T2DM can
diabetes mellitus 58705 T2DM. Figure 1Schematic illustration of possible pathways through which environment impacts type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. Adapted from Poortinga [[34]], Northridge et al. [[41]], and Giles-Corti et al. [[42]].
diabetes mellitus 59978 relevant literature.SlSearch Terms1type 2 diabetes OR non-insulin-dependent diabetes OR prediabetes OR diabetes mellitus 21 AND built environment OR neighbo?hood environment31 AND walkability OR green space OR greenspace OR
diabetes mellitus 61788 measured51Reported by study participants/surveys3Survey and objective measures combined6OutcomeType 2 diabetes mellitus 25Diabetes Mellitus35Prediabetes and diabetes mellitus4Outcome assessmentSelf-reported vi25Blood sugar
diabetes mellitus 61842 and objective measures combined6OutcomeType 2 diabetes mellitus25Diabetes Mellitus35Prediabetes and diabetes mellitus 4Outcome assessmentSelf-reported vi25Blood sugar tests vii13Database/registers/records22AssociationSignificant
metabolic syndrome 6207 and health outcomes closely related to T2DM such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and physical activity [[5],[6],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23]]. The conceptual framework presented in
metabolic syndrome 40143 recent systematic reviews that showed walkable environment to be associated with a lower risk of T2DM, metabolic syndrome , obesity, blood pressure [[5],[20],[21]] and physical activity [[21],[134]]. However, the underlying
obesity 3874 pancreas, controls blood sugar levels. Insulin resistance is related to genetic factors [[7],[8]], obesity , sedentary lifestyle and aging [[7],[9]]. Consumption of energy-dense food and physical inactivity are
obesity 4009 aging [[7],[9]]. Consumption of energy-dense food and physical inactivity are important predictors of obesity and T2DM [[9],[10]].Initially, a greater amount of insulin is produced to achieve a normal glucose level
obesity 6159 reviews also suggest a link between the environment and health outcomes closely related to T2DM such as obesity , cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and physical activity [[5],[6],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23]].
obesity 7428 in a highly walkable environment are likely to walk more [[29],[35]], thereby reducing the risk of obesity . Similarly, having supermarkets close by can encourage a healthy diet, and dense neighbourhoods can
obesity 7932 These environment shaped choices and behaviours can regulate calorie intake and burning that influences obesity risk, β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Crime, social disorders, and unsafe neighbourhood
obesity 15191 [[62]] employed a randomised intervention design to assess the influence of neighbourhood conditions on obesity and T2DM. Randomised experimental studies help eliminate confounding by known and unknown factors. It
obesity 40163 reviews that showed walkable environment to be associated with a lower risk of T2DM, metabolic syndrome, obesity , blood pressure [[5],[20],[21]] and physical activity [[21],[134]]. However, the underlying factors
obesity 40407 are less clear, and the current data are limited to derive causal inference although the influence of obesity , physical activity, and income has been noted [[85],[92],[95]]. Many studies did not consider that those
obesity 41385 result for one- and three-mile buffer areas [[73]]. The area size at which the environment impacts obesity has also been shown to vary for different characteristics [[135]]. The exact neighbourhood buffer area
obesity 41971 to physical activity environment and resources is associated with hypertension, physical activity, obesity and cardiovascular outcomes [[5],[20],[22],[40]]. Hence, the relationship between T2DM and physical
obesity 43239 mixed findings. Literature also suggests a mixed if not negligible effect of the food environment on obesity [[5],[53]]. Both healthy and unhealthy foods can be available in food outlets such as supermarkets,
obesity 43886 Differences in perceived and observed environmental measures have also been noted in association with obesity and physical activity [[137],[138]]. An individual’s behaviour can be more closely linked to their
obesity 44641 neighbourhood have a lower risk of T2DM. A few reviews also portray green space to be protective against obesity related outcomes [[140],[141]]. The current data, however, are limited by design and the green space–T2DM
obesity 46750 Hormonal changes due to sleep deprivation can increase appetite that can promote the development of obesity and changes in metabolic functions including elevated blood sugar levels [[143],[145]]. Noise can also
obesity 47146 and stress can heighten T2DM risk [[144]]. Chronic stress results in impaired metabolic function and obesity through dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, a system that controls stress and body
obesity 48751 also trigger insulin resistance [[49]]. Air pollution has also been associated with hypertension and obesity [[6],[151]]. The data on other pollutants are minimal.The effect of NO2 appeared to be stronger than
obesity 51324 Neighbourhood safety, physical conditions, and disorder have been associated with physical activity and obesity [[44],[137],[156]]. A higher property value can also influence physical activity and healthy diet [[157]].
obesity 51666 spaces and proximity to amenities. Likewise, urban compactness has been associated with lower rates of obesity and hypertension and increased physical activity [[158]]. A compact neighbourhood can bring amenities
type 2 diabetes mellitus 672 1/2018Publication date (ppub): 1/2018AbstractDifferent elements of the environment have been posited to influence type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This systematic review summarizes evidence on the environmental determinants of T2DM identified
type 2 diabetes mellitus 58698 burden of T2DM. Figure 1Schematic illustration of possible pathways through which environment impacts type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. Adapted from Poortinga [[34]], Northridge et al. [[41]], and Giles-Corti et al. [[42]].

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