Oxidative toxicity in diabetes and Alzheimer's disease: mechanisms behind ROS/ RNS generation.

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Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
Insulin 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
Wilson disease 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 3 endocrinologydiseases
hyperlipidemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 1 endocrinologydiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 9102 pathways.Oxidative stress in T2DMDM is a metabolic disorder categorized into two main groups: Type I ( Insulin dependent) that is due to immune-mediated beta-cells destruction and lead to insulin deficiency, and
Insulin 9223 that is due to immune-mediated beta-cells destruction and lead to insulin deficiency, and Type 2 (Non- Insulin dependent) that is due to insulin secretion defects and resulted in insulin resistance [[55]]. Prolonged
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
Wilson disease 7270 tract disease, eye diseases, brain degenerative impairments, aging, hemochromatosis, thalassemia, and Wilson disease [[45], [46]].In living organisms, Oxidants and antioxidants play a significant role in regulating free
hyperglycemia 13505 dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity by 66% and resulted in PARP activation and NAD+ depletion [[81]]. In hyperglycemia , glucose conversion to the polyalcohol sorbitol and fructose via the polyol pathway reduces NAD+ to
hyperglycemia 14423 superoxidase radicals is countered by superoxide dismutase’s (SODs) and by uncoupling proteins (UCPs). In hyperglycemia , over expression of UCPs reduce mitochondrial hyperpolarization and ROS formation, and block the glucose
hyperglycemia 14872 pyruvate via accelerated glycolysis and production of superoxides radicals at the Complex-II level under hyperglycemia [[79], [90]]. Although glucose is least reactive reducing sugar, it may lead to Amadori product through
hyperlipidemia 9633 [[56]–[58]]. In addition to elevated blood-glucose levels, other factors include high-cholesterol level ( hyperlipidemia ) and oxidative stress leading to high risk of complications [[59]]. According to epidemiological studies,
metabolic syndrome 3108 cholesterol metabolism, and hypertension [[6]–[8]]. Presence of these symptoms altogether known as metabolic syndrome (MetS) and could signify a pathological connection between impaired metabolism and several neurological
obesity 2980 biological, molecular and genetic data supports a patho-physiological link between T2DM and AD, including obesity , impaired glucose, cholesterol metabolism, and hypertension [[6]–[8]]. Presence of these symptoms

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