New Insights into the Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Products on Diabetes: A Focus on the "Bacteria-Mucosal Immunity-Inflammation-Diabetes" Axis.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
Insulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 2 endocrinologydiseases
metformin 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
type 2 diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
glucose intolerance 2 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
hyperlipidemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
hypoglycemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 6 endocrinologydiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 11776 the progression of pancreatic, colon, and breast cancer [[28]–[31]].3.1.1. Effect of BBR on Diabetes Insulin resistance (IR) is a metabolic state in which insulin inefficiently regulates the tissue and cell for
metformin 16627 the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) [[50]]. A recent study showed that compared with metformin , the application of M. charantia in diabetes patients had lower probability of hypoglycemia although
metformin 16764 charantia in diabetes patients had lower probability of hypoglycemia although it is less effective than metformin in lowering blood glucose [[51]]. In addition, M. charantia has a superposition effect when taken with
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 5827 Disorder of Mucosal Immunity Leads to DiabetesGut microbiota affects insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by altering the intestinal epithelial barrier and intestinal mucosal immunity. The main function
diabetes mellitus 18842 insulin resistance [[54]]. M. charantia has been reported to inhibit inflammation and the development of diabetes mellitus in rats and mice [[54], [56]]. After weeks of treatment with M. charantia, fasting glucose, insulin,
glucose intolerance 5042 number of Bifidobacterium species (spp.) and subsequently reduces the level of inflammation and improves glucose intolerance [[10]]. The metagenomic analysis revealed that patients with type 2 diabetes had moderate levels of
glucose intolerance 13035 known to be associated with glucose metabolism in the muscle, liver, and adipose tissue and causes glucose intolerance and T2DM [[17], [34]]. Recent studies have shown that BBR imparts beneficial effects on the immune cells
hyperglycemia 24131 blood glucose levels and insulin resistance indices in T2DM rats [[86]]. Ginsenoside Ge can improve hyperglycemia by improving cholinergic and antioxidant systems in the brain of C57BL/6 mice and improve high-fat diet-induced
hyperlipidemia 15726 and alexipharmacon herb. Recent studies have shown that M. charantia can ameliorate oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia [[44]], inflammation [[45]], and apoptosis [[46]]. It also regulates glucose metabolism by acting as
hypoglycemia 16716 compared with metformin, the application of M. charantia in diabetes patients had lower probability of hypoglycemia although it is less effective than metformin in lowering blood glucose [[51]]. In addition, M. charantia
obesity 12001 and utilization of glucose. Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) contributes to obesity -induced inflammation and insulin resistance [[32]]. A recent study showed that BBR inhibited saturated
obesity 13452 low-grade inflammation [[35]].Intestinal microflora is an important factor in mediating the development of obesity -related metabolic disorders (including type 2 diabetes). The current results suggest that BBR can regulate
obesity 13814 in high-fat diet-fed rats; it indicates that BBR is possibly an effective agent for the treatment of obesity and diabetes [[36]]. A study showed that BBR improved metabolic disorders induced by high-fat diets
obesity 17025 thus, patients may achieve better management of blood glucose [[52]]. M. charantia also reduces the obesity of rats fed with a high-fat diet [[53], [54]].3.2.2. M. charantia Changes Gut MicrobiotaThe effect of
obesity 17441 known, the intestinal flora is considered to play an important role through which M. charantia improves obesity and metabolic diseases (including diabetes) and is worth the sustained attention [[54]]. It was reported
obesity 31095 MicrobiotaThere is an established connection between an altered gut microbiota and metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes [[133], [134]]. After treatment with GGQLD, the relative abundance of intestinal beneficial
type 2 diabetes mellitus 5820 diabetes.2.2. Disorder of Mucosal Immunity Leads to DiabetesGut microbiota affects insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by altering the intestinal epithelial barrier and intestinal mucosal immunity. The main function

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