Adult ADHD and Comorbid Somatic Disease: A Systematic Literature Review.

Existing Reviews

Please note, new claims can take a short while to show up.

No claims yet.

Annotation Summary

Term Occurence Count Dictionary
metabolic syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 44 endocrinologydiseases
acetylcysteine 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
amphetamine 3 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
hypothyroidism 2 endocrinologydiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

Review

Having read the paper, please pick a pair of statements from the paper to indicate that a drug and disease are related.

Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
acetylcysteine 62399 previous cerebral involvement (p = .004). Anxiety and depressive symptoms correlated with ADHD symptoms.N- acetylcysteine (NAC) has been reported to improve psychiatric symptoms in various disorders ([18]; [19]). In a randomized-
amphetamine 25893 sleep disturbances. Pearson et al. reported a non-significant increase in the use ADHD medication ( amphetamine s) in 110 restless legs patients (Mage 61 years; p = .09) compared with 54 age- and race-matched controls
amphetamine 40253 methylphenidatereported an improvement in sleep quality ([113]). A study of the central stimulant lisdex amphetamine including 420 participants showed no difference in global sleep quality among adult ADHD patients receiving
amphetamine 40379 participants showed no difference in global sleep quality among adult ADHD patients receiving lisdex amphetamine compared with placebo, and daytime functioning in the stimulant treatment group improved compared with
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 47979 ADHD compared with those without (p ≤ .0001; [100]).Diabetes (ICD-10: E10-E14)Pancreas insulin cells diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood glucose levels over prolonged
hypothyroidism 3219 direct pathophysiological consequence of a specific medical condition (e.g., multiple sclerosis, stroke, hypothyroidism ). However, in the most recent version of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health
hypothyroidism 47816 Hodgkins et al., investigating U.S. health care claims for 2006 (adult ADHD: 31,752; non-ADHD: 95,256), hypothyroidism was significantly more common in adults with ADHD compared with those without (p ≤ .0001; [100]).Diabetes
metabolic syndrome 4318 quality of life and reduced life expectancy. In schizophrenia, it is known that weight gain, diabetes, metabolic syndrome , and cardiovascular disease are common, and it is speculated that a shared vulnerability for psychosis
obesity 14002 assesses symptoms of ADHD in childhood ([192]). For additional measurements, see Supplement 3.Measure of obesity Body mass index (BMI) is defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. In adults,
obesity 14332 overweight, and a BMI of ≥30 kg/m2 is defined as obese ([194]). BMI is as simple and easy way to evaluate obesity and is useful to evaluate obesity trends in the general population. However, BMI does not provide an
obesity 14366 defined as obese ([194]). BMI is as simple and easy way to evaluate obesity and is useful to evaluate obesity trends in the general population. However, BMI does not provide an accurate measurement of body fat,
obesity 16082 system. Thus, the cited prevalences are not directly comparable.ADHD comorbidity with sleep disorders or obesity has previously been reviewed. However, for the majority of conditions mentioned, the differences in
obesity 17434 suspected ADHD based on rating scales have been reported to be 10% to 32% in studies exploring adults with obesity or obesity treatment, mainly including female participants ([3]; [5]; [64]; [80]; [120]; [143]; [188]).
obesity 17445 based on rating scales have been reported to be 10% to 32% in studies exploring adults with obesity or obesity treatment, mainly including female participants ([3]; [5]; [64]; [80]; [120]; [143]; [188]). Similarly,
obesity 17951 between participants in age-corrected BMI ([22]).It is unclear whether the association between ADHD and obesity is dependent on ADHD subtypes ([57]), but there are indications of higher proportions of inattentive
obesity 18456 (52% females; [144]). A diagnosis of adult ADHD was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity , also when adjusting for demographic characteristics and major depressive disorder, but not when controlling
obesity 19072 Similar to findings of Altfas and Pagoto et al. ([144]), the prevalence increased with the degree of obesity . The associations between estimated ADHD and obesity were significant when adjusting for sociodemographic
obesity 19125 ([144]), the prevalence increased with the degree of obesity. The associations between estimated ADHD and obesity were significant when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, symptoms of anxiety and depression
obesity 19307 symptoms of anxiety and depression and also purging behaviors, indicating that the relationship between obesity and ADHD in adulthood is not fully explained by binge eating. A small non-clinical Canadian study also
obesity 19474 eating. A small non-clinical Canadian study also found associations between ADHD symptoms and overweight/ obesity , independent of binge eating ([56]).A population-based U.S. study included 34,653 participants who were
obesity 19688 asked about ADHD symptoms ([46]). In this study, remittent ADHD was not significantly associated with obesity , whereas there was an association in adults with persistent ADHD. However, after adjusting for mood
obesity 19977 33-year follow-up study including 111 males, remittent, but not persistent ADHD was associated with obesity , also after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and lifetime mental disorders ([52]).The
obesity 20534 circumference.Meta-analysesIn a meta-analysis by Cortese et al., on the association between adult ADHD and obesity , 11 data sets with a total of 2,046 adult ADHD participants and 63,747 controls were analyzed, including
obesity 20770 studies ([51]). Studies of individuals in bariatric clinics were excluded. The pooled prevalence of obesity was 28.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [22.8%, 34.4%]) in adults with ADHD relative to 16.4% [13.4%,
obesity 20998 without ADHD. When analyzing all age groups, age did not influence the association between ADHD and obesity , indicating that the relationship may be present from childhood (Cortese et al., 2016). This was supported
obesity 21216 two prospective cohort studies from the United States ([8]; [52]). The association between ADHD and obesity found in the meta-analysis by Cortese et al. remained significant when limiting to studies where ADHD
obesity 21839 limiting data to adults of 18 years or more, and was not significant for children.Combined ADHD and obesity comorbid with other conditionsThe combination of obesity and ADHD also shows comorbidity with other
obesity 21896 significant for children.Combined ADHD and obesity comorbid with other conditionsThe combination of obesity and ADHD also shows comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, for instance mood and anxiety disorders
obesity 22420 symptoms ([47]). A mediation analysis conducted as part of a clinical study, including 114 patients with obesity , 202 adult ADHD patients, and 154 controls, showed that both sleep duration and unstable eating patterns
obesity 22610 unstable eating patterns mediated the association between BMI and ADHD symptoms. A link between ADHD, obesity , and iron deficiency has also been discussed ([42]).Implications for treatmentSeveral of the cited studies
obesity 22840 the importance of recognizing comorbid conditions for planning optimal treatment of either ADHD or obesity . Treatment for obesity in people with ADHD may be less successful compared with obese people without
obesity 22863 recognizing comorbid conditions for planning optimal treatment of either ADHD or obesity. Treatment for obesity in people with ADHD may be less successful compared with obese people without ADHD ([5]; [143]), and
obesity 23050 ADHD ([5]; [143]), and treatment of comorbid ADHD in obese individuals may improve the treatment for obesity ([45]). Clinicians should also consider abnormal eating behaviors as contributing to obesity in ADHD
obesity 23143 treatment for obesity ([45]). Clinicians should also consider abnormal eating behaviors as contributing to obesity in ADHD patients ([50]; [131]).Treating ADHD successfully might help people with obesity and ADHD to
obesity 23232 contributing to obesity in ADHD patients ([50]; [131]).Treating ADHD successfully might help people with obesity and ADHD to better manage overeating ([54]), reduce self-blame, and facilitate the process of regaining
obesity 23896 ADHD in obese individuals may improve the otherwise poor effects of standard treatment strategies for obesity ([42]). This is supported by a small Canadian study where ADHD patients treated with stimulant medication
obesity 24235 meta-analysis by Cortese et al. limited to studies on unmedicated patients only showed a pooled estimate for obesity of OR = 1.43 [1.23, 1.67], compared with OR = 1.00 [0.87, 1.15] when limiting to medicated patients
obesity 24479 clinicians should be aware that comorbid anxiety and mood disorders may be more directly linked to obesity than to ADHD itself, and also take these disorders into account when planning treatment ([46]).Restless
obesity 72828 connection with somatic disease. We found a consistent association between adult ADHD and increased risk of obesity , sleep disorders, and asthma. Associations were also consistent for migraine and celiac disease. Less
obesity 77191 or liver failure ([114]). However, stimulant therapy may have positive effects on the treatment of obesity , sleep disorders, CFS, and restless legs.PathophysiologyConditions classically thought to be disorders
obesity 78322 commonly associated diseases.Several mechanisms may account for the reported association between ADHD and obesity . Shared neurobiological or genetic mechanisms may be common to both ADHD and obesity ([134]); ADHD and
obesity 78407 between ADHD and obesity. Shared neurobiological or genetic mechanisms may be common to both ADHD and obesity ([134]); ADHD and obesity being facets of the same underlying condition ([137]). Both ADHD and obesity
obesity 78433 Shared neurobiological or genetic mechanisms may be common to both ADHD and obesity ([134]); ADHD and obesity being facets of the same underlying condition ([137]). Both ADHD and obesity are related to the dopamine
obesity 78510 obesity ([134]); ADHD and obesity being facets of the same underlying condition ([137]). Both ADHD and obesity are related to the dopamine system, and dopamine-related genes may affect body weight, eating patterns,
obesity 79536 controlling for current anxiety/depression and sociodemographics ([188]).Obesity and disorders related to obesity could also create symptoms resembling ADHD symptoms, such as sleep-disordered breathing, which can lead
obesity 79719 sleep-disordered breathing, which can lead to inattentive symptoms during the day ([50]). ADHD itself can lead to obesity rather than the other way around ([52]). The behavior associated with ADHD can lead to bad eating habits
obesity 82114 delayed circadian rhythm may compensate being tired by binge eating during the day, which again leads to obesity (. [110]). A delayed sleep phase and sleep deficit can be risk factors for several disorders such as
obesity 82223 (. [110]). A delayed sleep phase and sleep deficit can be risk factors for several disorders such as obesity , diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders ([110]).As for ADHD, the dopaminergic system has also been suggested
obesity 82662 Other common pathophysiological factors for these disorders may be inflammatory mechanisms ([14]) and obesity ([43]; [59]), as obesity leads to a proinflammatory state ([15]).There is substantial evidence that
obesity 82687 pathophysiological factors for these disorders may be inflammatory mechanisms ([14]) and obesity ([43]; [59]), as obesity leads to a proinflammatory state ([15]).There is substantial evidence that dopaminergic mechanisms are
obesity 83921 for example, that headache or sleep disorders may be confounding factors for the association between obesity and ADHD ([42]; [85]), or that iron deficiency in ADHD is explained by, at least partly, the elevated
obesity 84043 ([42]; [85]), or that iron deficiency in ADHD is explained by, at least partly, the elevated presence of obesity ([42]).Many of the existing studies are small. To be able to reveal a true association between ADHD

You must be authorized to submit a review.