Induction of thermogenic adipocytes: molecular targets and thermogenic small molecules.

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obesity 31 endocrinologydiseases
phentermine 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
rosiglitazone 3 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
phentermine 1905 and nausea.[2], [3], [4] Phentermine is another widely used drug that suppresses appetite. However, phentermine targets the central nervous system and can cause severe mental changes and sensory deficits.[5] The
rosiglitazone 16269 mechanism remains unclear.[76], [77], [78] A recent study has indicated that Pparγ agonists, particularly rosiglitazone , can induce beige adipocyte formation through stabilizing the Prdm16 protein. The induction of beige
rosiglitazone 16397 beige adipocyte formation through stabilizing the Prdm16 protein. The induction of beige adipocyte by rosiglitazone is blunted in Prdm16-knockdown cells, further indicating a role for Prdm16 in rosiglitazone-mediated
rosiglitazone 16489 adipocyte by rosiglitazone is blunted in Prdm16-knockdown cells, further indicating a role for Prdm16 in rosiglitazone -mediated WAT browning.[16]JAK inhibitorsIn a recent study, Moisan et al.[79] screened small-molecule
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
obesity 1080 BAT activation, stimulating energy expenditure has been considered as a great strategy to treat human obesity and metabolic diseases. Here we summarize recent findings regarding molecular targets and thermogenic
obesity 1499 energy expenditure.[1] The excess energy is stored as triglycerides in adipocytes. The prevalence of obesity and its related metabolic diseases is increasing worldwide. However, current approaches to combat obesity
obesity 1605 obesity and its related metabolic diseases is increasing worldwide. However, current approaches to combat obesity are limited due to their adverse side effects. For example, Orlistat, a well-known medication that blocks
obesity 2159 (BAT) in adults has brought about a new interest in alternative therapies that activate BAT to treat obesity and associated metabolic diseases.[6], [7], [8] These studies have thus fueled the development of therapeutic
obesity 6729 pool. Mice injected with Pm20d1-containing adenovirus have been found to be protected from diet-induced obesity via an increase in energy expenditure.[32] Moreover, injection of N-acyl amino acid itself can also
obesity 7377 metabolic rates.[25], [26], [33] Transgenic mice expressing Prdm16 in WAT depots are protected from obesity due to improved glucose metabolism.[34] Consistently, adipocyte-specific knockout of Prdm16 exacerbates
obesity 7489 to improved glucose metabolism.[34] Consistently, adipocyte-specific knockout of Prdm16 exacerbates obesity and glucose homeostasis.[35] Mechanistic studies have further revealed that Prdm16 interacts with multiple
obesity 8255 Therefore, targeting pathways to increase Prdm16/Prdm4 expression may lead to new therapeutic avenues for obesity and diabetes.Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1αPeroxisome proliferator-activated
obesity 10221 adipocyte-specific expression of Zfp516 can activate thermogenic adipocytes in WAT depots and prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure.[46]HormonesIrisinAlthough intrinsic transcription factors regulating
obesity 10613 Transgenic mice expressing Pgc-1α in muscles have increased beige fat and are protected from diet-induced obesity . Subsequent studies have shown that induction of thermogenic adipocytes by muscle Pgc-1α is mediated
obesity 12785 metabolic diseases. Previous studies have shown that berberine-treated db/db mice can be protected from obesity by increasing energy expenditure via the activation of BAT and browning of inguinal but not epididymal
obesity 13280 (Toxicodendron vernicifluum).[58]Toxicodendron vernicifluum has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti- obesity and anti-cancer activities.[59], [60], [61] Butein also has the ability to induce Ucp1 mRNA expression.
obesity 14831 In metabolic diseases, 7,8-DHF-treated female, but not male, mice have been shown to be resistant to obesity induced by a high-fat diet. This resistance can be explained by increased expression of Ucp1 in muscles
obesity 15562 is a highly enriched carotenoid found in edible seaweeds.[71] Fucoxanthin has been shown to prevent obesity , metabolic disease and cancer.[72], [73] Fucoxanthin treatment in mice can reduce whole body weight
obesity 18160 has shown that salsalate-treated mice have increased BAT activity and are resistant to diet-induced obesity . Salsalate has also resulted in a reduction in body weight in preestablished obese mice, further suggesting
obesity 18305 reduction in body weight in preestablished obese mice, further suggesting its therapeutic potential in obesity . Mechanistically, salsalate appears to modulate PKA activity in brown adipocytes.[14]β3-Adrenergic
obesity 18763 counterparts.[89] Mice with triple knockout of all beta receptors (β1, β2 and β3) are more prone to diet-induced obesity and metabolic diseases due to defects in thermogenic activities.[90] In accordance with this finding,
obesity 19436 activity.[94], [95] Cyclic GMP-dependent pathways can be targeted as a new therapeutic approach to treat obesity and metabolic diseases. Treatment with BAY 41–8543 can sustain soluble guanylyl cyclase, reduce body
obesity 21004 that produces serotonin from its precursor tryptophan has protected mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity . Such an effect is due to an increased energy expenditure. Consistently, mice injected with chemical
obesity 21167 expenditure. Consistently, mice injected with chemical inhibitors of Tph1 are also resistant to diet-induced obesity .[101], [102]LactateLactate is a well-known cellular metabolite produced in muscles during anaerobic
obesity 22041 lactate-mediated WAT browning.[104]β-Aminoisobutyric acidExercise has been considered the best treatment for obesity and metabolic diseases. Robert et al.[105] suggested that the modulation of circulating hormones and
obesity 22910 was considered a non-bioactive molecule; however, it has been recently reported that nitrate has anti- obesity effects via thermogenic adipocyte induction.[107] Nitrate treatment can induce brown adipocyte-selective
obesity 23795 impair BAT-dependent thermogenesis, whereas activation of adenosine receptor prevents diet-induced obesity by inducing WAT browning and increasing energy expenditure.[111]Unresolved issues for thermogenic small
obesity 24831 One of the main concerns is whether induction of browning in humans is a legitimate strategy against obesity and metabolic diseases. It is clear that diet-, cold- and exercise-induced WAT browning and BAT activation
obesity 24966 is clear that diet-, cold- and exercise-induced WAT browning and BAT activation in mice can prevent obesity and its associated metabolic diseases. However, this strategy has not yet been deemed attractive against
obesity 25266 1/10 of that in mice. Systemic administration of catecholamines is negatively associated with human obesity ; it is ineffective for human thermogenesis, with potential sympathomimetic effects.[112] By contrast,
obesity 26782 effects on non-adipose tissues.Tissue-specific control of BAT activityBecause currently available anti- obesity medications are often limited by their psychological or cardiovascular side effects, specific targeting
obesity 27584 group has shown that nanoparticle drug delivery methods targeting adipose tissues can be effective for obesity and insulin resistance without drug accumulation in other tissues.[115] Involvement of different types
obesity 30943 by chemical optimization can bring about thermogenic small molecules that are more effective against obesity and metabolic diseases. For example, optimized sirtuin inhibitors based on resveratrol have been developed,
obesity 33714 These molecules can thus be used as alternative therapeutic targets to develop interventions against obesity and metabolic dysregulation.[130]ConclusionRecent studies of metabolism have focused on understanding
obesity 34097 discovery of functional BAT in humans, targeting BAT is a promising therapeutic approach for treating obesity and metabolic diseases. However, further research is needed to reveal the significance of BAT (and WAT

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