A Review of the Impact of Maternal Obesity on the Cognitive Function and Mental Health of the Offspring.

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hyperlipidemia 10834 [[17],[49],[50]].2.5. Dementia and NeurodegenerationIndividuals who have mid-life hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are at increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) [[51]]. Given the association between
obesity 632 are currently estimated to be obese. Children born to obese mothers are at higher risk of developing obesity , coronary heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and asthma in adulthood. Increasing clinical and experimental
obesity 777 stroke, and asthma in adulthood. Increasing clinical and experimental evidence suggests that maternal obesity also affects the health and function of the offspring brain across the lifespan. This review summarizes
obesity 975 review summarizes the current findings from human and animal studies that detail the impact of maternal obesity on aspects of learning, memory, motivation, affective disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,
obesity 1359 IntroductionDespite being classified as an epidemic by the World Health Organization in 2007, rates of obesity in many countries continue to rise unabated. Recent estimates of global obesity suggest that approximately
obesity 1439 Organization in 2007, rates of obesity in many countries continue to rise unabated. Recent estimates of global obesity suggest that approximately 37% of men and 30% of women are overweight or obese [[1]]. In some countries,
obesity 1614 overweight or obese [[1]]. In some countries, such as Kuwait, Libya, and Tonga, the estimated prevalence of obesity among women aged 20 years and older is close to or over 60% [[1]]. Rates of maternal obesity have risen
obesity 1707 prevalence of obesity among women aged 20 years and older is close to or over 60% [[1]]. Rates of maternal obesity have risen in parallel [[2],[3],[4]], due to both greater numbers of obese pregnant women and excess
obesity 1865 greater numbers of obese pregnant women and excess weight gain during pregnancy [[5],[6]]. Maternal obesity influences the health of both the mother and child. Pre-natal complications include increased risk of
obesity 2074 miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, and thromboembolism [[7]]. In addition, maternal obesity negatively impacts upon placental, embryonic, and fetal growth and increases the risk of post-partum
obesity 2353 arising from research into the developmental origins of health and disease (DoHAD) suggests that maternal obesity also has long-lasting consequences on the health of the offspring. It is now established that maternal
obesity 2464 also has long-lasting consequences on the health of the offspring. It is now established that maternal obesity is associated with increased body-mass index (BMI) of offspring across infancy [[9]], adolescence [[10]],
obesity 2857 offspring [[13],[14],[15]]. Increasingly, DoHAD studies are looking at the relationship between maternal obesity and the offspring brain. Although much of this work has focused on the neuronal mechanisms that contribute
obesity 2985 brain. Although much of this work has focused on the neuronal mechanisms that contribute to offspring obesity , there is mounting—but sometimes contradictory—evidence for an influence of maternal obesity on
obesity 3082 offspring obesity, there is mounting—but sometimes contradictory—evidence for an influence of maternal obesity on the cognitive function and mental health of the offspring. As increasing numbers of children are
obesity 4311 such as depression and schizophrenia [[18],[19]], support a putative relationship between maternal obesity , epigenetic dysregulation, and mental health in later life.This review will summarize findings from
obesity 4480 life.This review will summarize findings from human and animal studies on the long-term impact of maternal obesity on cognitive function in the offspring brain, as well as the predisposition towards psychiatric and
obesity 4868 Mental Health in Offspring Born to Obese Mothers2.1. Animal StudiesMost animal models induce maternal obesity by feeding female animals calorically-dense foods, including high fat or “cafeteria” diets. Feeding
obesity 5042 fat or “cafeteria” diets. Feeding schedules are typically initiated before (e.g., pre-pregnancy obesity ) or at the start of gestation and/or lactation to distinguish the effects of pre- and peri-natal high
obesity 5503 sustained high fat diet exposure [[22],[23],[24],[25],[26]]. Investigations into the impact of maternal obesity or high fat feeding on offspring cognition and mental health in animal models have focused predominantly
obesity 5845 developing neurodegenerative diseases. 2.2. Depression and AnxietyStudies examining the effect of maternal obesity on offspring anxiety have reported mixed results. Initial investigations using non-human primates reported
obesity 7760 species-specific [[37]]. Although fewer studies have been carried out looking at the relationship between maternal obesity and depression, reports to date suggest that young adult male rodents exposed to a high fat diet either
obesity 8059 symptoms than those born to lean dams. 2.3. Learning and Memory Assessments of the effect of maternal obesity on offspring learning and memory have largely focused on the acquisition and retention of spatial memory.
obesity 9722 at testing. 2.4. Motivation and AttentionOne hypothesis for the interrelationship between maternal obesity and increased risk of obesity in the offspring is that this early life exposure to over-nutrition leads
obesity 9752 and AttentionOne hypothesis for the interrelationship between maternal obesity and increased risk of obesity in the offspring is that this early life exposure to over-nutrition leads to a blunted reward response
obesity 10959 increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) [[51]]. Given the association between maternal obesity and metabolic disease in adult offspring, a few animal studies have also examined the impact of prenatal
obesity 12005 offspring of lean Tg2576 mice [[54]]. These preliminary studies suggest that the impact of maternal obesity on the cognitive function of the offspring extends not only across the lifespan, but may also predispose
obesity 12289 AD, vascular dementia, and multiple sclerosis [[15],[55],[56]].3. Human StudiesThe impact of maternal obesity on cognitive function and the development of psychiatric disorders in human offspring has recently been
obesity 12681 performance, as well as increased risk of developing depression and anxiety. The relationship between maternal obesity and offspring risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum
obesity 14468 and adolescence. These studies largely support a negative correlation between pre-pregnancy maternal obesity and child IQ [[69],[70],[71],[72],[73],[74],[75],[76],[77],[78]], including poorer motor, spatial, and
obesity 15359 increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood [[84]] supports a role for maternal obesity on offspring mental health across the life-course. 3.3. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)Elevated
obesity 16982 matched sibling analysis of over 6000 children did not report a significant association between maternal obesity and offspring risk of autism [[91]]. Similarly to IQ, children born to mothers who are both underweight
obesity 17899 surprisingly little work has been done to investigate the putative epigenetic mechanisms by which maternal obesity influences offspring cognition and mental health. Among the classical epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation
obesity 19655 [[99]] and microRNA levels in amniotic fluid [[100]] have been reported in human studies of maternal obesity , supporting a putative role for these epigenetic mechanisms in mediating the effects of maternal obesity
obesity 19760 obesity, supporting a putative role for these epigenetic mechanisms in mediating the effects of maternal obesity on the offspring brain.5. ConclusionsThe gestational environment plays a critical role on the long-term
obesity 19954 on the long-term health of the fetus. Results from animal studies examining the impact of maternal obesity on the cognitive performance and behaviour of the offspring are currently mixed. Inter-experimental
obesity 20787 child IQ, as well as risk of developing depression and anxiety. A clear association between maternal obesity and increased risk of ADHD and autism spectrum disorder in the offspring has not yet been established

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