Effects of Polyphenol Intake on Metabolic Syndrome: Current Evidences from Human Trials.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
Insulin 5 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hyperglycemia 2 endocrinologydiseases
hypertriglyceridemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 9 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 10 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 9815 and expert groups, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR), the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII),
Insulin 16715 polyphenols in weight loss and obesity prevention.4.1.2. Association between Polyphenol Intake and Insulin ResistancePolyphenol intake has been related to decreased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
Insulin 46790 circumferenceRegionMenWomenAsia≥90 cm≥80 cmEurope, Africa, and Middle-East≥94 cm≥80 cmAmerica≥102 cm≥88 cm Insulin resistanceFasting blood glucose≥100 mg/dL (5.55 mmol/L)HypertensionBlood pressure≥130/85 mmHgDyslipidemia∗Fasting
Insulin 48680 sensitivity[[100]]Placebo-controlled32Obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant46–57Blueberries45 g/day powder6 weeks Insulin sensitivity, inflammatory biomarkers, and adiposityImproved insulin sensitivity but no changes in adiposity
Insulin 51868 the control diet[[96]]Case-control36MetS and healthy individuals42–64Mediterranean diet—3 months Insulin resistance and oxidative and inflammatory statusDecreased plasma, erythrocyte, and platelet antioxidant
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hyperglycemia 9473 SyndromeMetS is a cluster of several interrelated and well-documented cardiovascular risk factors ( hyperglycemia , hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and central adiposity) that may provably result from
hyperglycemia 10801 characterized by the cluster of three or more independent CV risk factors, namely, abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia /insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and/or high low-density
hypertriglyceridemia 10835 three or more independent CV risk factors, namely, abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia/insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia , low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and/or high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high
metabolic syndrome 32871 intake improves the oxidative and inflammatory profile, as reviewed [[107]].In middle-aged women with metabolic syndrome , 300 mL of pomegranate juice (rich in flavonoids) daily for 6 weeks decreased erythrocyte but not
metabolic syndrome 44810 (http://phenol-explorer.eu/) and Andres-Lacueva et al. [[132]].Figure 2Pathological processes involved in the metabolic syndrome and their potential interactions.Figure 3Main potential effects of polyphenols on metabolic syndrome
metabolic syndrome 44911 metabolic syndrome and their potential interactions.Figure 3Main potential effects of polyphenols on metabolic syndrome components.Table 1Major food sources of dietary polyphenols.Food groupPolyphenolsWinePhenolic acids,
metabolic syndrome 47099 ≤40 mg/dL for women and men, respectivelyAccording to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), metabolic syndrome is defined as central obesity plus 2 or more cardiovascular risk factors [[133]], and according to the
metabolic syndrome 47255 or more cardiovascular risk factors [[133]], and according to the American Heart Association (AHA), metabolic syndrome is defined by having 3 or more cardiovascular risk factors [[134]]. ∗High triglyceride levels and
metabolic syndrome 47463 levels and low HDL cholesterol levels are considered independent risk factors for the definition of metabolic syndrome . HDL denotes high-density lipoprotein.Table 3Summary of interventional trials with polyphenol-rich foods
metabolic syndrome 47590 denotes high-density lipoprotein.Table 3Summary of interventional trials with polyphenol-rich foods on metabolic syndrome .Ref.Type of studyNumber of patientsPatients' characteristicsAge (years)InterventionDoseDurationMeasured
metabolic syndrome 52999 parallel86Overweight/obese individuals with a large waist circumference and any other component of the metabolic syndrome 44–64Isoenergetic diets with high and low polyphenol content—8 weeksFasting and postmeal TRLs and
metabolic syndrome 53727 not in MetS patients. No changes in lipid profile in either populationRef.: reference number; MetS: metabolic syndrome ; HOMA: homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and insulin resistance; BMI: body mass index;
obesity 2256 overnutrition from an energy balance focus are the most studied topics, because a triggering factor of MetS is obesity . Nevertheless, intense research from the last decades has shown that not only energy balance but macro-
obesity 9618 insulin resistance, and central adiposity) that may provably result from the increasing prevalence of obesity and seems to be triggered by insulin resistance [[33]]. Many international organizations and expert
obesity 10792 status and characterized by the cluster of three or more independent CV risk factors, namely, abdominal obesity , hyperglycemia/insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and/or high
obesity 11423 arthritis, neurodegenerative diseases [[39]], and all-cause mortality [[40]]. The prevalence of both obesity and type 2 diabetes has increased dramatically in recent decades worldwide, and both conditions represent
obesity 15162 studies have proposed different mechanisms by which polyphenols could play a potential role in reducing obesity , but few cohort studies have evaluated the association between polyphenol intake and body weight. In
obesity 16647 randomized interventional trials are needed to properly elucidate the role of polyphenols in weight loss and obesity prevention.4.1.2. Association between Polyphenol Intake and Insulin ResistancePolyphenol intake has
obesity 23324 US adults showed that intake of hot (brewed) tea, but not of iced tea, was inversely associated with obesity and biomarkers of MetS and CVDs [[87]]. On the other hand, a cross-sectional study of a Japanese cohort
obesity 31551 while several randomized trials have evaluated the effects of polyphenols on patients with abdominal obesity and or some of the MetS components, few randomized trials have evaluated the effects of polyphenols
obesity 46647 (http://phenol-explorer.eu/).Table 2Metabolic syndrome definition.Cardiovascular risk factorMeasurementDefinitionCentral obesity Waist circumferenceRegionMenWomenAsia≥90 cm≥80 cmEurope, Africa, and Middle-East≥94 cm≥80 cmAmerica≥102 cm≥88 cmInsulin
obesity 47140 respectivelyAccording to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), metabolic syndrome is defined as central obesity plus 2 or more cardiovascular risk factors [[133]], and according to the American Heart Association

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