Weight Management in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes and Obesity.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
metformin 5 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
obesity 19 endocrinologydiseases
phentermine 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
Liraglutide 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hyperinsulinemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
hypoglycemia 5 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 6 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
Pramlintide 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
metabolic syndrome 1 endocrinologydiseases

Graph of close proximity drug and disease terms (within 200 characters).

Note: If this graph is empty, then there are no terms that meet the proximity constraint.

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 3233 with T1D gain excess body weight and how clinicians can help them manage it.Mechanisms of Weight Gain Insulin TherapyInsulin is anabolic hormone that plays a role in inhibiting protein catabolism, stimulating lipogenesis,
Insulin 3248 excess body weight and how clinicians can help them manage it.Mechanisms of Weight GainInsulin Therapy Insulin is anabolic hormone that plays a role in inhibiting protein catabolism, stimulating lipogenesis, and
Insulin 3986 first and disproportionately affects muscle and adipose in comparison to the liver [[]].Intensity of Insulin TherapyIntensity of insulin treatment influences weight gain as shown in the Diabetes Control and Complications
Insulin 5664 insulin therapy is complex and multifaceted, but thus far a healthy balance must be reached.Type of Insulin TherapyLimited research had been conducted on how different types insulin and their methods of administration
Insulin 6645 6 months with insulin glargine U300, yet insulin requirements increased [[]••].Growth Hormone and Insulin -like Growth Factor-1The non-physiological mechanism of exogenous insulin administration negatively affects
Insulin 16410 weight-based physical activities if appropriate pre-exercise measures are taken [[]••].Medications Insulin Adjustment of insulin treatment to facilitate weight reduction has been suggested [[]]. Long-acting insulin
Liraglutide 18758 glycemic control did not reach statistical significance in trials using active comparators [[]••]. Liraglutide , a GLP-1 analog, in conjunction with insulin has been shown to improve glycemic control and induce weight
Pramlintide 19449 doses [[], []]. Currently, exenatide is not FDA-approved for use in patients with T1D.Amylin Analog Pramlintide is an injectable, synthetic form of human amylin [[]]. Amylin is a beta cell hormone co-secreted with
metformin 17497 [[]].MetforminMetformin is a potent anti-hyperglycemic agent used to treat T2D; however, several studies used metformin alongside intensive insulin therapy to treat patients with T1D and obesity [[], []]. In a recent randomized
metformin 17654 patients with T1D and obesity [[], []]. In a recent randomized control trial, patients with T1D using metformin had significant improvements in body weight and lipid profile over 3 years [[]••]. While there
metformin 17832 3 years [[]••]. While there was an initial reduction in HbA1c over the first 3 months of using metformin , this improvement was not maintained for over the next 33 months [[]••]. However, these patients
metformin 18023 However, these patients had a significant reduction in insulin dose requirements which is explained by metformin ’s action as an insulin sensitizer [[]••]. So far, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not
metformin 18144 as an insulin sensitizer [[]••]. So far, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved metformin for use in patients with TID.Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) AnalogsGLP-1 is an incretin hormone that
phentermine 20798 MedicationsThere are four new anti-obesity medications approved recently by the US FDA (lorcaserine, topirmate/ phentermine , neltroxone/bupropion, liraglutide). All of them plus the older medications like Orlistat and Phentermine
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hyperinsulinemia 16551 facilitate weight reduction has been suggested [[]]. Long-acting insulin creates a pattern of 24-h hyperinsulinemia , which stimulates lipogenesis and inhibits lipolysis [[]]. Long-acting insulin such as NPH and glargine
hypoglycemia 9010 than adults without diabetes [[]]. The main barrier to physical activity reported is fear of severe hypoglycemia [[]]. Though this is a clear psychological barrier, it is also a valid concern since hypoglycemia is
hypoglycemia 9108 severe hypoglycemia [[]]. Though this is a clear psychological barrier, it is also a valid concern since hypoglycemia is the most common adverse event of physical activity in patients with T1D [[]]. Hypoglycemia may occur
hypoglycemia 9279 patients with T1D [[]]. Hypoglycemia may occur during or up to 24 h after activity [[]]. To prevent hypoglycemia , patients usually reduce their insulin dose before exercise, but this strategy can only be used when
hypoglycemia 16042 most suitable as long as their energy expenditure is in line with their weight loss goals. Risk of hypoglycemia during or after exercise can be minimized if blood glucose is closely monitored before, during, and
hypoglycemia 23130 particularly with RYGB and biliopancreatic diversion [[]]. There is also a recognized risk of postprandial hypoglycemia [[]] and weight regain after this procedure [[]].Sleeve GastrectomySleeve gastrectomy restricts stomach
metabolic syndrome 7941 deficiency, and IR [[]]. Double diabetes tends to occur when the pro-inflammatory state associated with metabolic syndrome leads to reduced glycemic control, eventually requiring higher daily doses of insulin [[]•]. Increasing
obesity 419 diabetes (T1D) are typically viewed as lean individuals. However, recent reports showed that their obesity rate surpassed that of the general population. Patients with T1D who show clinical signs of type 2 diabetes
obesity 543 that of the general population. Patients with T1D who show clinical signs of type 2 diabetes such as obesity and insulin resistance are considered to have “double diabetes.” This review explains the mechanisms
obesity 1218 muscle mass. Dynamic adjustment of insulin doses is necessary during weight management. Addition of anti- obesity medications may be considered. If medical weight reduction is not achieved, bariatric surgery may also
obesity 1396 achieved, bariatric surgery may also be considered.IntroductionIn the past 20 years, the prevalence of obesity has tripled worldwide, to the extent that it is now being considered an epidemic [[]]. Obesity, defined
obesity 1660 approximately 35% of men and 40% of women in the USA [[]••]. It has recently been reported that obesity in particular is rising at a greater rate than overweight [[]].Though patients with type 1 diabetes
obesity 1892 been thought to have lower BMI, current research has shown otherwise [[]]. The trend of increasing obesity prevalence has increased at a faster rate in patients with T1D compared to the general population [[]].
obesity 2376 T1D for an average of 18 years, prevalence of overweight increased from 29 to 42% and prevalence of obesity increased sevenfold from 3 to 23% [[]]. Weight gain appeared to be unrelated to aging and instead related
obesity 2755 controlling body weight in patients with T1D is necessary due to the well-known relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) [[]••]. Metabolic abnormalities related to obesity, such as the
obesity 2843 relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) [[]••]. Metabolic abnormalities related to obesity , such as the pro-inflammatory state, are likely to modify CVD risk in this population [[]••]. So
obesity 7510 term used to describe patients with T1D who also show clinical signs of type 2 diabetes (T2D) such as obesity and insulin resistance (IR) [[], []••]. With the rising rates of overweight and obesity among patients
obesity 7602 such as obesity and insulin resistance (IR) [[], []••]. With the rising rates of overweight and obesity among patients with T1D, there are no longer clear divisions between the two major diabetes subtypes
obesity 17574 however, several studies used metformin alongside intensive insulin therapy to treat patients with T1D and obesity [[], []]. In a recent randomized control trial, patients with T1D using metformin had significant improvements
obesity 18384 peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation [[]]. GLP-1 analogs are currently used to treat T2D and obesity . They reduce appetite and slow gastric emptying and thus reduce body weight and body fat by lowering
obesity 19065 it is not approved for patients with T1D, its higher doses (2.4 and 3 mg/day) can be used to treat obesity . In a crossover study, exenatide treatment reduced postprandial plasma glucose but did not change HbA1c
obesity 20679 Dual SGLT-1 and SGLT-2, sotagliflozin, is being investigated for use in patients with T1D [[]•].Anti- obesity MedicationsThere are four new anti-obesity medications approved recently by the US FDA (lorcaserine,
obesity 20722 being investigated for use in patients with T1D [[]•].Anti-obesity MedicationsThere are four new anti- obesity medications approved recently by the US FDA (lorcaserine, topirmate/phentermine, neltroxone/bupropion,
obesity 23527 it is the most commonly prescribed bariatric surgery due to its efficacy and durability in treating obesity and associated comorbidities [[]]. Sleeve gastrectomy is associated with similar rates of complications
obesity 24135 glycemic control may not be a probable outcome of bariatric surgery [[], []].ConclusionPrevalence of obesity has increased at faster rate in patients with T1D than in the general population. While intensive insulin
obesity 24701 insulin therapy, adding other diabetes medications that positively impact body weight, or adding anti- obesity medications are suggested. If medical weight management fails, bariatric surgeries are valid methods

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