Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Diabetic Atherosclerosis: Herbal Medicines as a Potential Therapeutic Approach.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
pioglitazone 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
type 2 diabetes mellitus 3 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
complications of diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetes mellitus 8 endocrinologydiseases
hyperglycemia 9 endocrinologydiseases
hyperinsulinemia 1 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 12227 inactivation may be a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of diabetic atherosclerosis.3.1.4. Insulin otropic Polypeptide (GIP)As illustrated previously, high glucose accelerates atherosclerosis and foam
Insulin 41865 curcumin ameliorates diabetic atherosclerosis through multiple mechanisms [[132]].5. Future Perspectives Insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are associated with diabetic atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction,
pioglitazone 25758 the inflammatory effects of the AGE/RAGE system in diabetes [[84]]. Recent studies have shown that pioglitazone attenuates platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC proliferation through AMPK-dependent and
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
complications of diabetes mellitus 19048 formation, and SOCS1 endogenous protein may be a feasible target for modulating inflammation-related complications of diabetes mellitus . Approaches to supplement SOC1 or mimic native SOCS1 function may have therapeutic effects on accelerated
diabetes mellitus 622 (ppub): /2017Publication date (epub): 8/2017AbstractAn increasing number of patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus eventually develop severe coronary atherosclerosis disease. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus
diabetes mellitus 723 diabetes mellitus eventually develop severe coronary atherosclerosis disease. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus increase the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with atherosclerosis. The cellular and molecular
diabetes mellitus 3899 of higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines was detected in both animal models and patients with diabetes mellitus [[6]]. Increases in long-chain acyl-COA synthetase 1 (ACSL1), toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, and TLR4 contribute
diabetes mellitus 4502 CellsEndothelial dysfunction due to inflammation and oxidative stress is a crucial characteristic in diabetes mellitus -linked atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability,
diabetes mellitus 5373 Muscle CellsProliferation and accumulation of smooth muscle cells are detected in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus . However, it is still unclear whether changes in smooth muscle cells are a result of the diabetic environment
diabetes mellitus 17540 also a pivotal inflammatory mechanism through which hyperglycemia contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications [[58]–[60]]. High glucose stimulates endothelial IL-6 secretion via
diabetes mellitus 19065 SOCS1 endogenous protein may be a feasible target for modulating inflammation-related complications of diabetes mellitus . Approaches to supplement SOC1 or mimic native SOCS1 function may have therapeutic effects on accelerated
diabetes mellitus 41309 curcumin, twice daily) for 8 weeks significantly improved the endothelial function of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus . Curcumin also blocks oxidative stress and inflammation by modulating PPARγ and Nrf2 activity [[131]].
hyperglycemia 3540 macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which regulate the adhesion of monocytes, are dysregulated in hyperglycemia -induced atherosclerosis in animal models. Increased foam cells derived from macrophages promote the
hyperglycemia 4800 [9]]. The excess generation of free oxygen radicals leads to apoptosis in endothelial cells [[9]]. In hyperglycemia , chronic inflammation increases vascular permeability, promotes the generation of adhesion molecules
hyperglycemia 7486 [[18]].3. Molecules or Signal Transduction Pathways3.1. Molecules3.1.1. AGEsThe detrimental effects of hyperglycemia can be attributed to the biochemical consequences of intracellular metabolism associated with excess
hyperglycemia 17491 hyperplasia [[56], [57]]. Moreover, JAK/STAT is also a pivotal inflammatory mechanism through which hyperglycemia contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications [[58]–[60]]. High
hyperglycemia 20710 acts upstream of Akt in the Akt/eNOS/NO pathway to regulate endothelial function under conditions of hyperglycemia . SIRT1 is a class III histone deacetylase that has been shown to stimulate NO production by deacetylating
hyperglycemia 27305 accumulation, representing another mechanism for glucose-induced NFAT activation [[89]]. NFATc3 is activated by hyperglycemia , thereby inducing the expression of osteopontin (OPN), a cytokine that promotes diabetic atherosclerosis
hyperglycemia 33968 [[105]]. These findings provide evidence for the endothelial protection function of TMP in the context of hyperglycemia . Studies have shown that TMP can suppress the proliferation of VSMCs [[106]], and the ERK and p38MAPK
hyperglycemia 41510 Nrf2 activity [[131]]. Zheng et al. showed that the curcumin analogue L3 alleviates dyslipidaemia and hyperglycemia and reduces oxidative stress in diabetic mice induced by STZ and a high-fat diet. Additionally, L3 effectively
hyperglycemia 41888 diabetic atherosclerosis through multiple mechanisms [[132]].5. Future PerspectivesInsulin resistance and hyperglycemia are associated with diabetic atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, myeloid
hyperinsulinemia 6762 agents, such as prostacyclin (PGI2) and NO [[16]]. Glycated low-density lipoprotein- (GlyLDL-) and hyperinsulinemia -induced impairment of calcium homeostasis, activation of protein kinase C (PKC), increased generation
type 2 diabetes mellitus 716 with diabetes mellitus eventually develop severe coronary atherosclerosis disease. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus increase the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with atherosclerosis. The cellular and molecular
type 2 diabetes mellitus 5366 Smooth Muscle CellsProliferation and accumulation of smooth muscle cells are detected in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus . However, it is still unclear whether changes in smooth muscle cells are a result of the diabetic environment
type 2 diabetes mellitus 41302 curcumin, twice daily) for 8 weeks significantly improved the endothelial function of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus . Curcumin also blocks oxidative stress and inflammation by modulating PPARγ and Nrf2 activity [[131]].

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