Effect of the Holiday Season on Weight Gain: A Narrative Review

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type 2 diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
diabetes mellitus 1 endocrinologydiseases
obesity 34 endocrinologydiseases

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diabetes mellitus 32388 measured; however, the evaluation covered the month of December; BMI: body mass index. T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus .Table 2Studies evaluating the effect of the holiday period on body weight in adults attempting to lose
obesity 1328 not show an effect on BMI percentile (−0.4%, p > 0.05) during this period. Among individuals with obesity who attempt to lose weight, an increase in weight was observed (0.3 to 0.9 kg, significant in some
obesity 2133 worldwide, making research on its causes a priority [[1], [2]].Interest in the causes and prevention of obesity has increased due to the difficulty of treatment. Intensive lifestyle change programs, which are considered
obesity 2735 evaluations (>2 years) are lacking [[6]]. It has been assumed that the most efficient long-term treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery [[7], [8]], although this surgery is limited to more severe states (body mass index
obesity 3599 obesogenic environment. Thus, it is necessary to consider prevention as the best strategy to fight obesity .It is recommended that preventive interventions for obesity should aim to modify the environment and
obesity 3659 prevention as the best strategy to fight obesity.It is recommended that preventive interventions for obesity should aim to modify the environment and food system, as well as behavior-change communication through
obesity 4033 week of November to the first or second week of January, could be a risky period for weight gain and obesity [[14]]. During this time, people from different countries attend religious and cultural celebrations
obesity 5244 conducted in PubMed and other databases, using the keywords “holiday/holidays" and “weight gain/ obesity .” The search was limited to studies published in English and Spanish without specifying limits on
obesity 11666 seeking to lose weight.Andersson and Rössner, in 1992 conducted a study that included 46 patients with obesity participating in a maintenance therapy program at the obesity unit of a hospital in Sweden. These patients
obesity 11728 study that included 46 patients with obesity participating in a maintenance therapy program at the obesity unit of a hospital in Sweden. These patients self-reported their weight weekly in individual charts
obesity 12114 staff were included. They were invited to record their weight during the same period. Patients with obesity had a nonsignificant increase of 0.6 ± 2.4 kg, whereas controls had an increase of 0.4 ± 0.8 kg
obesity 14957 researchers evaluated a group of subjects with normal weight (BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2) with no history of obesity . Both groups increased body weight in the holiday period (0.7 kg versus 0.2 kg) with no significant
obesity 15349 study in Spain, by García et al., showed that 215 patients participating in a clinical treatment for obesity gained 0.29 kg weight at Christmas and New Year's Eve (25 December to 5 January) even when they were
obesity 17512 0.05) [[27]].3.4. Studies in ChildrenIn 2010, Branscum et al. studied the effect of the holidays on obesity parameters in 90 children from a public elementary school in the United States. The study included two
obesity 18016 was no change in BMI percentile (−0.4%, p > 0.05). It was noted that children with overweight and obesity increased their body mass index percentile and BMI and weigh more than children with normal weight [[26]].4.
obesity 21709 Cristi-Montero et al. evaluated the effect of two vacation periods (national and winter) on some parameters of obesity in Chilean schoolchildren, age 10 to 14 years, with medium socioeconomic status [[37]]. For the national
obesity 23067 [[37]].Finally, Baranowski et al. conducted a narrative review of differences in weight gain (BMI Z score, obesity , or other parameters) between the school year and summer holidays in children. The common pattern in
obesity 23239 holidays in children. The common pattern in six longitudinal studies was that children with overweight and obesity had accelerated weight gain during the summer, while normal weight children gained less or did not gain
obesity 25342 animal model studies, this diet can cause loss of weight regulation, contributing to hyperphagia and obesity [[49], [51], [52]]. This palatable diet can lead to high intakes of food by disrupting diverse signaling
obesity 25658 Weight Gain, Weight Loss, and Weight Regain (Yoyo Effect)The deleterious effect of weight gain and obesity on health is highly documented. However, the effect of losing and regaining weight or gaining and reducing
obesity 26997 the lifestyle intervention versus the control group [[57]]. It makes sense that when individuals with obesity improve their weight, fitness, body composition, blood lipids, blood sugar, and blood pressure, lower
obesity 27890 patients with controlled diabetes, highly motivated individuals and participants under treatment for obesity also gain weight during the holiday season (Table 2). Small sample size is another potential source
obesity 29770 include representative samples of the general population in different age groups that evaluate change in obesity parameters and that consider the methodological limitations mentioned in this review.Table 1Studies
obesity 30040 adults.Author, year, and countryNumber of participants, age, sex, BMI, and prevalence of overweight/ obesity Date of measurementsaSample, masking of participants, retentionbMean weight change ± SD p valueRees
obesity 32213 bMasking: the participants did not know that the study objective was to evaluate the effect of holidays on obesity parameters. cThe winter holiday season period was not specifically measured; however, the evaluation
obesity 32645 people.Author, year, and countryNumber of participants, age, sex, BMI, and prevalence of overweight/ obesity Date of measurementsaSample, masking of participants, retentionbMean weight change ± SD p valuecAndersson
obesity 33133 January 6th. (3 weeks between data collected).Subjects participating in a maintenance program for obesity . Masking only in this group. Subjects from the hospital staff who participated as control group
obesity 34817 comparisons)Squires 2007 United States217 adults Age, sex, BMI, and prevalence of overweight/ obesity not reportedInitial measurement: at the beginning of the challenge. Final measurement: at the end
obesity 36039 couple of days after January 5th. (2 weeks between measurements).Individuals receiving treatment for obesity No. From 258 patients, 215 were measured on both occasions.0.29 ± 1.33 kgp < 0.05Helander et
obesity 37283 bMasking: the participants did not know that the study objective was to evaluate the effect of holidays on obesity parameters; cp value derived from comparisons before and after analysis, except when specified; dSD
obesity 37763 students.Author, year, and countryNumber of participants,mean age, sex, BMI, and prevalence of overweight/ obesity Date of measurementsaSample, masking of participants, retentionbChange in obesity parameterp valueBranscum
obesity 37844 prevalence of overweight/obesityDate of measurementsaSample, masking of participants, retentionbChange in obesity parameterp valueBranscum et al. 2010United States88 children(average age 9.1 years) Boys = 53%Girls
obesity 38030 9.1 years) Boys = 53%Girls = 47% BMI percentile = 73.9 ± 26.0 Normal weight = 51%Overweight/ obesity = 49%Initial measurement: in early December. Final measurement: in mid-January.Convenience sample. No. Retention
obesity 38356 students(18–40 years) Men = 45% Women = 55% BMI = 23.9 ± 4 kg/m2 Normal weight = 66% Overweight/ obesity = 34%Initial measurement: November 14 to 22. Final measurement: January 9 to 21.Convenience sample. No. Retention
obesity 38697 bMasking: the participants did not know that the study objective was to evaluate the effect of holidays on obesity parameters; BMI: body mass index
type 2 diabetes mellitus 32381 specifically measured; however, the evaluation covered the month of December; BMI: body mass index. T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus .Table 2Studies evaluating the effect of the holiday period on body weight in adults attempting to lose

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