Genes, emotions and gut microbiota: The next frontier for the gastroenterologist.

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Term Occurence Count Dictionary
obesity 16 endocrinologydiseases
Insulin 1 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
amphetamine 2 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
cortisol 5 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
hypertriglyceridemia 1 endocrinologydiseases
lactose intolerance 1 endocrinologydiseases
metabolic syndrome 2 endocrinologydiseases

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Select Drug Character Offset Drug Term Instance
Insulin 21085 secreted by white adipose tissue[[64]], and promotes satiety and increasing energy expenditure[[65]]. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that participates in glucose homeostasis[[66]] and has a similar
amphetamine 21634 the AgRP neurons are the anorective cells that co-express pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART). These neurons release α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which
amphetamine 22616 Y/Agouti-related receptor protein; PYY: Peptide YY; Y2R: Y2 receptor; POMC/CART: Pro-opiomelanocortin/cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript; α-MSH: α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone; PVN: Paraventricular nucleus; ARC:
cortisol 11157 The former favors blood flow whereas the latter generate vasoconstriction, releasing adrenalin and cortisol , which activates stress. Based on Lowen’s concept, one or a set of negative emotions over an extended
cortisol 13778 nervous system and the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone, which finally stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex to limit stress[[34]]. In fact, patients with FGIDs and exacerbated anxiety
cortisol 13912 to limit stress[[34]]. In fact, patients with FGIDs and exacerbated anxiety and depression have high cortisol levels[[35]]. Due to HPA axis dysregulation the mesolimbic brain reward system (BRS) is altered, resulting
cortisol 16735 balance circuit and BRS that lead to negative emotions chronically activate the HPA axis elevating cortisol levels. Cortisol results in dysbiosis, allowing pathogens to permeate the gut barrier and activate inflammation.
cortisol 17455 of the HPA axis[[40]] releases free systemic stress hormones such as adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol that promote bacterial growth of pathogens such as E. coli (E. coli0157), Yersinia enterocolitic, and
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
hypertriglyceridemia 19140 of obesity-related metabolic diseases and metabolic syndrome components such as abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia , and reduced high-density lipoprotein levels[[58],[59]].In this vein, changes in gut microbiota composition
lactose intolerance 35796 bitter (TAS2R38)[[110]] taste receptors, lipid-transporting proteins (APO e2 and e4, FABP2)[[111]], lactose intolerance (LCT-13910 C>T)[[112]] and neurotransmitter transporters (DRD2 Taq1)[[113]]. These alleles have been
metabolic syndrome 19083 psychopathologies increases proportionally with the number of obesity-related metabolic diseases and metabolic syndrome components such as abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and reduced high-density lipoprotein levels[[58],[59]].In
metabolic syndrome 33528 Consequently, individuals with these risk alleles consuming an obesogenic diet may develop dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and chronic diseases. As the shown in Figure 4, this natural physiological need, as modulated by the
obesity 2019 next frontier that awaits the gastroenterologist to prevent and treat GI disorders associated with obesity and negative emotions.Core tip: Even though instincts, emotions, and behavior are evolutionary mechanisms
obesity 2723 aid in the prevention and reduction in the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders associated with obesity and negative emotions.INTRODUCTIONOne of the main functions of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract
obesity 4237 those associated with psychological or emotional factors[[3]].As a result of the aforementioned issues, obesity has increased remarkably worldwide, along with its concomitant GI symptoms and associated co-morbidities,
obesity 4742 health services[[7]]. Eating less and more exercise has been the simplest proposal for the management of obesity . However, to date, all strategies to combat obesity have failed due to lack of a therapeutic target,
obesity 4794 been the simplest proposal for the management of obesity. However, to date, all strategies to combat obesity have failed due to lack of a therapeutic target, or the patient’s lack of knowledge and poor attitude[[8]].
obesity 18433 cytokines, and macrophage infiltration[[52]]. Moreover, epidemiological studies have shown that central obesity and BMI are predictors of depression, anxiety and low quality of life[[53],[54]]. Dysfunctions in adipose
obesity 19044 pathways[[57]]. Moreover, the prevalence of psychopathologies increases proportionally with the number of obesity -related metabolic diseases and metabolic syndrome components such as abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia,
obesity 19131 the number of obesity-related metabolic diseases and metabolic syndrome components such as abdominal obesity , hypertriglyceridemia, and reduced high-density lipoprotein levels[[58],[59]].In this vein, changes
obesity 26739 summarizes several SNPs seen in the energy-balance system and BRS genes involved in less satiety and obesity as well as emotional and cognitive disturbances[[80]-[83]] that may be lead to a dysfunctional gut-brain
obesity 29820 carriers were known as “warriors” in response to stress resistance. Furthermore, it is thought that obesity behaviors could be related to the Met/Met genotype[[101]-[102]]. Additionally, the Val66Met polymorphism
obesity 31678 healthy body will respond to the hunger-satiety/reward cycle. However, several decades ago, the global obesity epidemic was not a public health problem. On the contrary, famines and poverty limited access to food
obesity 33817 However, by eating the wrong food and feeling negative emotions, this same system may eventually lead to obesity and changes in the gut microbiota starting a vicious cycle. As mentioned before, negative emotions lead
obesity 34290 in moderation to fulfill the joy of celebration. Instead, this excessiveness has led to addiction, obesity and chronic diseases.Figure 4Signals involved in the health/disease process. Brain dopaminergic pathway
obesity 35958 neurotransmitter transporters (DRD2 Taq1)[[113]]. These alleles have been associated with metabolic abnormalities, obesity and alcohol abuse disorders, aggravated by the consumption of a hepatopathogenic and obesogenic diet[[114]].
obesity 37622 overridden this energy/pleasure circuitry to the point of addiction to several foodstuffs as well as obesity and other associated chronic co-morbidities. Balancing this altered physiological process to regain
obesity 38017 next frontier that awaits the gastroenterologist to prevent and treat GI disorders associated with obesity and negative emotions

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