The effect of lifestyle interventions on maternal body composition during pregnancy in developing countries: a systematic review.

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diabetes mellitus 2 endocrinologydiseases
folate deficiency 2 endocrinologydiseases
niacin 3 endocrinologydiseasesdrugs
obesity 47 endocrinologydiseases

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niacin 16952 fortified wheat flour (30 mg iron, 2 200 μg folic acid, 6.3 mg thiamine, 1.3 mg riboflavin, 13 mg niacin per kg), 2 kg soy-enriched maize flour fortified with micronutrients (1 500 μg RE vitamin A, 8 mg thiamine,
niacin 17092 flour fortified with micronutrients (1 500 μg RE vitamin A, 8 mg thiamine, 8 mg riboflavin, 100 mg niacin , 1,000 μg folic acid, 40 mg iron, 30 mg zinc per kg), 1 kg sugar, and 1 kg rice. It also contained
niacin 17423 mg vitamin C, 0.7 mg vitamin B1, 0.7 mg vitamin B2, 0.9 mg vitamin B6, 0.9 μg vitamin B12, 6.8 mg niacin , 200 μg folic acid, 240 mg calcium, 35 mg magnesium, 6 mg iron, 4 mg zinc and 29 mg selenium.1 yearWeight
Select Disease Character Offset Disease Term Instance
diabetes mellitus 3704 adverse maternal effects of obesity during pregnancy include miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus , infection, venous thromboembolism and haemorrhage.[7] The foetal risks associated with maternal obesity
diabetes mellitus 23381 both childhood[22] and adolescence.[23] For the mother, obesity-related complications and gestational diabetes mellitus may predispose her to the risk of metabolic and vascular diseases later on in life.[24] Therefore, with
folate deficiency 17679 weight, normal weight, overweight, obese, ferritin, iron deficiency (prevalence), folate, prevalence of folate deficiency , zinc, prevalence of zinc deficiency, retinol, prevalence of vitamin A deficiencyAt baseline 27.5% were
folate deficiency 17902 underweight; 25.4% normal weight; 22.4% overweight; 24.7% obese. There was a significant decrease in folate deficiency in the intervention group compared to the control group. The risk of vitamin A deficiency decreased
obesity 2799 environments.AbstractBoth developed and developing countries are experiencing a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity , which places affected individuals at an increased risk for a number of different diseases, including
obesity 3242 least 400 million adults who were obese.[3]Especially alarming is the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among women of childbearing age in both developed and developing countries. Around 12 to 38% of pregnant
obesity 3631 increased risk for maternal and neonatal complications. The associated adverse maternal effects of obesity during pregnancy include miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, infection, venous
obesity 3819 mellitus, infection, venous thromboembolism and haemorrhage.[7] The foetal risks associated with maternal obesity include stillbirths and neonatal deaths, preterm births, congenital abnormalities and macrosomia.[8]
obesity 3958 neonatal deaths, preterm births, congenital abnormalities and macrosomia.[8] Long-term effects of maternal obesity on the offspring have also been observed and include increased risks of childhood and adolescent obesity,
obesity 4063 obesity on the offspring have also been observed and include increased risks of childhood and adolescent obesity , and diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adult life.[9]Both under- and overweight pose a risk to
obesity 4913 analysis of such data from the developing world is currently available.The health risks of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain to the mother and baby pose significant demands on the healthcare
obesity 5287 where insufficient resources exist to meet these extra demands on the public health system, and where obesity is already prevalent. It is therefore important to develop cost-effective interventions to reduce maternal
obesity 5402 already prevalent. It is therefore important to develop cost-effective interventions to reduce maternal obesity in such environments. In an attempt to determine the effectiveness of maternal lifestyle interventions
obesity 6062 Allied Health (CINHAL). Twenty-four search terms, with varying combinations, encompassing pregnancy, obesity /overweight, diet/nutrition, physical activity and developing countries (Table 1), were used. The search
obesity 6363 obtain articles in all languages and all types of documents.Table 1Search termsSearch 1Pregnancy AND obesity AND diet AND developing countriesSearch 2Pregnancy AND obesity AND nutrition AND developing countriesSearch
obesity 6426 documents.Table 1Search termsSearch 1Pregnancy AND obesity AND diet AND developing countriesSearch 2Pregnancy AND obesity AND nutrition AND developing countriesSearch 3Pregnancy AND obesity AND physical activity AND developing
obesity 6494 countriesSearch 2Pregnancy AND obesity AND nutrition AND developing countriesSearch 3Pregnancy AND obesity AND physical activity AND developing CountriesSearch 4Pregnancy AND obesity AND exercise AND developing
obesity 6570 countriesSearch 3Pregnancy AND obesity AND physical activity AND developing CountriesSearch 4Pregnancy AND obesity AND exercise AND developing countriesSearch 5Pregnancy AND overweight AND diet AND developing countriesSearch
obesity 6923 CountriesSearch 8Pregnancy AND overweight AND exercise AND developing countriesSearch 9Pregnancy AND obesity AND diet AND middle-income countriesSearch 10Pregnancy AND obesity AND nutrition AND middle-income countriesSearch
obesity 6990 developing countriesSearch 9Pregnancy AND obesity AND diet AND middle-income countriesSearch 10Pregnancy AND obesity AND nutrition AND middle-income countriesSearch 11Pregnancy AND obesity AND physical activity AND middle-income
obesity 7062 countriesSearch 10Pregnancy AND obesity AND nutrition AND middle-income countriesSearch 11Pregnancy AND obesity AND physical activity AND middle-income CountriesSearch 12Pregnancy AND obesity AND exercise AND middle-income
obesity 7142 countriesSearch 11Pregnancy AND obesity AND physical activity AND middle-income CountriesSearch 12Pregnancy AND obesity AND exercise AND middle-income CountriesSearch 13Pregnancy AND overweight AND diet AND middle-income
obesity 7515 CountriesSearch 16Pregnancy AND overweight AND exercise AND middle-income CountriesSearch 17Pregnancy AND obesity AND diet AND low-income countriesSearch 18Pregnancy AND obesity AND nutrition AND low-income countriesSearch
obesity 7579 middle-income CountriesSearch 17Pregnancy AND obesity AND diet AND low-income countriesSearch 18Pregnancy AND obesity AND nutrition AND low-income countriesSearch 19Pregnancy AND obesity AND physical activity AND low-income
obesity 7648 countriesSearch 18Pregnancy AND obesity AND nutrition AND low-income countriesSearch 19Pregnancy AND obesity AND physical activity AND low-income countriesSearch 20Pregnancy AND obesity AND exercise AND low-income
obesity 7725 countriesSearch 19Pregnancy AND obesity AND physical activity AND low-income countriesSearch 20Pregnancy AND obesity AND exercise AND low-income countriesSearch 21Pregnancy AND overweight AND diet AND low-income countriesSearch
obesity 8218 studies and cohort studies that were performed in developing countries and which investigated overweight/ obesity in pregnant women and/or lifestyle interventions during pregnancy were considered eligible. Investigations
obesity 11003 the number of included and excluded studies in the systematic review on lifestyle interventions for obesity /overweight during pregnancy in developing countriesThe results of the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool are
obesity 22435 intervention. No differences were noted for body composition, and the proportions of overweight and obesity in the groups were at a moderate level of 20 and 26.3%, respectively, post intervention.DiscussionPregnancy
obesity 22809 lifelong health of the baby. More specifically, both underweight and overweight babies are at risk of obesity later on in life.[20] The perinatal period has been cited by Lawlor and Chaturvedi[21] as one of the
obesity 22971 cited by Lawlor and Chaturvedi[21] as one of the three critical periods in life for the prevention of obesity .Maternal obesity is perhaps one of the major causes of intrauterine over-nutrition during pregnancy,
obesity 22988 Chaturvedi[21] as one of the three critical periods in life for the prevention of obesity.Maternal obesity is perhaps one of the major causes of intrauterine over-nutrition during pregnancy, and can lead to
obesity 23251 excessive gestational weight gain in both overweight and normal-weight women has been shown to increase obesity in the offspring in both childhood[22] and adolescence.[23] For the mother, obesity-related complications
obesity 23335 shown to increase obesity in the offspring in both childhood[22] and adolescence.[23] For the mother, obesity -related complications and gestational diabetes mellitus may predispose her to the risk of metabolic
obesity 23527 risk of metabolic and vascular diseases later on in life.[24] Therefore, with the current epidemic of obesity , maternal obesity has serious implications on the health of both current and future generations.Due
obesity 23545 and vascular diseases later on in life.[24] Therefore, with the current epidemic of obesity, maternal obesity has serious implications on the health of both current and future generations.Due to the potential health
obesity 23684 health of both current and future generations.Due to the potential health consequences of maternal obesity , pregnancy is a pivotal period to implement health interventions,[25] however, little research exists
obesity 25461 movement of populations from rural to urban environments have led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of obesity in developing countries,[28] and have caused this disease to move to the top of the public health agenda
obesity 25712 countries.[29]Although there have been calls to focus interventions on maternal nutrition in order to reduce the risk of obesity later on in life,[30] our review found only seven articles covering maternal obesity interventional
obesity 25797 reduce the risk of obesity later on in life,[30] our review found only seven articles covering maternal obesity interventional studies, with only one specifically addressing nutrition. In addition, although the rate
obesity 25912 interventional studies, with only one specifically addressing nutrition. In addition, although the rate of obesity is high and affects many developing countries, our study showed that only three countries (Brazil, Iran
obesity 26078 showed that only three countries (Brazil, Iran and Argentina) have reported on interventions to curb obesity during pregnancy.Despite the growing prevalence of obesity in developing countries and the well-recognised
obesity 26137 Argentina) have reported on interventions to curb obesity during pregnancy.Despite the growing prevalence of obesity in developing countries and the well-recognised detrimental effects of maternal obesity on both maternal
obesity 26225 prevalence of obesity in developing countries and the well-recognised detrimental effects of maternal obesity on both maternal and foetal outcomes, this review demonstrates the lack of pertinent research in this
obesity 26959 messages:Lifestyle interventions may be a cost-effective and useful way to manage maternal overweight and obesity as well as gestational weight gainFew good-quality studies assessing the efficacy of lifestyle interventions
obesity 27554 much needed in developing countriesVery few studies exist to address the issues of intervention for obesity and weight gain during pregnancy in developing countries. This review summarises the existing literature,
obesity 27777 71% were of poor quality. Although our review focused on lifestyle interventions for overweight and obesity during pregnancy, the search yielded only one study that aimed the intervention at overweight women,
obesity 28289 difficult.ConclusionDietary and lifestyle interventions during pregnancy may well be the key to addressing the prevention of obesity in future generations.[28] Physical activity[29] and dietary[12] interventions have been shown to play
obesity 28560 developed world. To our knowledge, this review is the first to address interventions for weight gain and obesity in developing countries, and few articles appear to have addressed this important issue. Lifestyle interventions
obesity 28825 curb the growing epidemic of nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. Despite maternal health and obesity being a public health priority, few robust studies have addressed this critical area.This review has
obesity 29097 carefully designed randomised, controlled trials, addressing primarily the issues of weight gain and obesity in pregnancy. Such studies are essential to determine the effectiveness and safety of appropriate lifestyle

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